α-Tocopherol, a type of vitamin E, has been known to be present in tobacco for many years. The compound is an antioxidant protecting cell membranes from oxidants. α-Tocopherol is transferred from tobacco into cigarette smoke, where it is also present. Analysis of α-tocopherol has been reported in a number of studies and in various matrices including tobacco and tobacco smoke. However, no recent publication describes a method for quantitative analysis of tocopherol in tobacco and in cigarette smoke, and many methods reported from previous studies were not published and only presented at conferences or communicated in internal company publications.
The goal of this study was to quantitate α-tocopherol and, if present, α-tocopheryl acetate in tobacco and in tobacco smoke. For this analysis, an original HPLC technique was developed and is described in this report. Both UV and MS/MS (MRM mode) were used as detection procedure for the analysis. The results obtained using UV detection were in very good agreement with the results obtained using MS/MS detection. The method has been applied for the analysis of a number of tobaccos, as well as the total particulate matter (TPM) from cigarettes made with the same tobaccos. Depending on tobacco type, the levels of α-tocopherol vary in tobacco between about 200 μg/g up to about 900 μg/g (“dry weight basis”). For ISO type smoking, the levels of α-tocopherol vary in TPM between about 2 μg/mg up to slightly above 4 μg/mg of TPM. For a cigarette generating TPM of about 10 mg/cig, the α-tocopherol is between about 20 μg/cig up to about 40 μg/cig. A relatively good correlation was obtained between the level of α-tocopherol in smoke (ISO type smoking) and the level of the compound in tobacco. α-Tocopheryl acetate was absent in tobacco.
In the absence of standards specific for testing the reduction robustness of the levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs), the aerosol from the THS 2.2, a heated tobacco product, was compared with the mainstream smoke of the 3R4F reference cigarette over a broad range of machine-smoking regimes. The average reduction and the introduced concept of threshold limits of robust reduction were derived from HPHC concentrations, in mass per tobacco-stick normalized per total puff volume, to propose an alternative for the assessment of products where nicotine-adjusted yields would be inappropriate. In addition, this study explores the influence of 3R4F reference cigarette filter ventilation, and discusses the roles of temperature and precursors in the present context of robustness of HPHC reduction. Fifty-four HPHCs were analyzed under multiple regimes in THS 2.2 aerosol and 3R4F cigarette smoke. The average reduction of HPHC concentrations compared across all regimes characterized the robustness. Threshold limits of reduction of individual HPHCs were statistically determined across all regimes. The results observed under Health Canada Intense (HCI) and more intense regimes indicated that on average the reductions in HPHCs levels investigated in THS 2.2 aerosol were more than 90% and that the majority of the 54 HPHCs investigated in THS 2.2 aerosol showed more than 90% reduction. The robustness of THS 2.2 in maintaining the levels of reduction of representative HPHCs, whatever the puffing regime, can be quantified. The mass of HPHC per tobacco-stick normalized per total puff volume is a valuable approach to compare the robustness of the performance of a product over a large range of puffing conditions. Our findings will greatly complement the assessment for robustness of current and future similar products where classical approaches would present limitations.
Recently, capillary columns have been widely used in the methodology for the determination of water yields in smoke condensate, even though ISO 10362-1:1999, “Cigarettes - Determination of water in smoke condensates – Part 1: Gas chromatographic method” specifies a packed gas chromatographic column. As a result of a systematic review in 2015, ISO/TC126 decided to revise the standard to include the use of capillary columns.
The goal of this study was to confirm the comparability of water yields obtained from capillary column methodology to those yields from packed columns by the statistical analysis of yield data from the 24th Asia Collaborative Study which included 86 datasets submitted by 64 laboratories. After the exclusion of outliers by Cochran’s and Grubbs’ tests, the datasets were classified by GC column type and then mean water yields, and their repeatability and reproducibility were calculated for each type of column. No significant differences were observed in water yields between capillary and packed columns. Repeatability and reproducibility of water yields using capillary column were comparable to those using packed columns as described in ISO 10362-1:1999. From these results, it was confirmed that the capillary columns are an appropriate alternative to packed columns for the gas chromatographic procedure described in ISO 10362-1:1999.
Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) including nitrosoanabasine (NAB), nitrosoanatabine (NAT), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are naturally present at trace levels in tobacco. During tobacco processing, preparation of expanded tobacco, and when tobacco is used in heat-not-burn type cigarettes, the tobacco is exposed to different degrees of heat. Heating of tobacco has been reported in the literature to increase the level of TSNAs. Since the increase of TSNAs in heated tobacco is still not well understood, the present study evaluated TSNA levels in six types of tobacco as a function of moderate heat exposure. These tobaccos included: flue-cured lower stalk, flue-cured upper stalk (US), Burley lower stalk, Burley upper stalk (US), and two Oriental blends (Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Northern Republic Macedonia). Heating was performed in sealed glass tubes at oven temperatures of 100 °C, 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C for time intervals of 2 min and 5 min. The temperatures inside the glass tubes were lower than the targets and were monitored separately as a function of glass tube heating. The study showed no meaningful differences within tobacco type (by stalk position) but showed considerable differences in the levels of TSNAs between different tobaccos, with the Burley tobaccos having the highest levels, and the Orientals the lowest. For all tobacco types, TSNAs increase to some extent when temperature increases. For 2-min heating, the increase in TSNAs is relatively small up to about 200 °C, but the levels almost double when the oven temperature increases to 250 °C. For 5-min heating, the increase in TSNAs starts at about 150 °C with a maximum at 200 °C which can reach more than double the initial TSNA level. Longer heating at 250 °C (5 min) starts to cause TSNAs decomposition and the levels are reduced.
Photovoltaic power system is taking a significant percentage of power system and the demands for accurate forecasting of the power outputs is surging. In prior works, the forecasting problem was formulated as a regression problem, however, which most cannot guarantee that the forecasted outputs is nonnegative. To solve this problem, we proposed a novel probabilistic model by using nonlinear regression and Bayesian learning method. In the paper, we present the detailed theoretical derivations and interpretations. The simulation results show the validity and feasibility of the proposed algorithm by comparing with the traditional SVM algorithm.
How to reduce the hardware cost and high power consumption of RF link of communication device is the key problem to be solved for multi-transmitting antenna and multi-receiving antenna system (MIMO). Always choose the best antennas connection a limited number of RF circuits, which is called antenna selection technology (AS), are a perfect solution to the problem, Assuming that the spatial range of the antenna meets the requirements of signal multiplexing and based on the maximum capacity criterion of the selected MIMO system, the manuscript proposes a low computational complexity (CC) and high performance joint transmitting and receiving antenna selection technique (JTRAS). Starting from the traditional capacity formula and the full matrix of MIMO channel, we utilize a simplified channel capacity expression through repeatedly iterating to delete a row and a column of the equivalent decrement channel matrix, which is to remove a pair of transmitting and receiving antennas. Based on the decreasing JTRAS (DJTRAS) algorithm, the capacity results of simulating calculation indicate that its median capacity overtakes other ones, such as optimum selection (OS), AS based on Frobenius 2 norm (NBS), and concise joint AS criterion (CJAS) etc., and the novel DJTRAS scheme can significantly reduce computational complexity (CC) compared to the exhaustive search method with maximum capacity, which defined as optimal algorithm in the curve graphs. This new technology of the AS is particularly suited to large number of selected antennas, such as Lt ≥ NT/2,Lr ≥ NR/2.
X-rays application for radiation processing was introduced to the industrial practice, and in some circumstances is found to be more economically competitive, and offer more flexibility than gamma sources. Recent progress in high-power accelerators development gives opportunity to construct and apply reliable high-power electron beam to X-rays converters for the industrial application. The efficiency of the conversion process depends mainly on electron energy and atomic number of the target material, as it was determined in theoretical predictions and confirmed experimentally. However, the lower price of low-energy direct accelerators and their higher electrical efficiency may also have certain influence on process economy. There are number of auxiliary parameters that can effectively change the economical results of the process. The most important ones are as follows: average beam power level, spare part cost, and optimal shape of electron beam and electron beam utilization efficiency. All these parameters and related expenses may affect the unit cost of radiation facility operation and have a significant influence on X-ray process economy. The optimization of X-rays converter construction is also important, but it does not depend on the type of accelerator. The article discusses the economy of radiation processing with high-intensity of X-rays stream emitted by conversion of electron beams accelerated in direct accelerator (electron energy 2.5 MeV) and resonant accelerators (electron energy 5 MeV and 7.5 MeV). The evaluation and comparison of the costs of alternative technical solutions were included to estimate the unit cost of X-rays facility operation for average beam power 100 kW.
The possibility of preparing fission chambers for the experimental determination of subcriticality without time-consuming corrections has been presented. The reactor detectors set consists of monoisotopic chambers. Each chamber is intended for a specific position in the system. Individual weights, rated a priori for all detectors in their positions, allow for quick calculation of whole system subcriticality. The inconveniences related to the spatial effect are minimized. This is achieved by computational simulation of the area method results, for each detector position and all possible fissionable and fissile nuclides. Next, one nuclide is selected, specific for the given position, presenting the smallest difference from the MCNP KCODE precisely estimated kkcode. The case study is made using the model of VENUS-F core.
This paper presents the results of long-term investigations of 137Cs and 134Cs activity concentrations in drinking water in the city of Zagreb for the period 1987–2018. The highest activity concentrations of both radio-nuclides were measured in 1987, decreasing exponentially ever since, while 134Cs in several subsequent years fell under the detection limit. After the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011, the presence of 134Cs in drinking water was detected again. The environmental residence time for 137Cs was estimated to be 8.1 years in drinking water and 5.7 years in fallout. The correlation between 137Cs in fallout and in drinking water is very good, and this indicates that fallout is the main source of water contamination. The observed 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio in drinking water for the post-Chernobyl period was similar to the ratio found in other environmental samples. The estimation of annual effective doses received by the adult members of the Croatian population due to the intake of radiocaesium in drinking water showed quite small doses of 0.28 μSv in 1987 decreasing to 2.5 nSv in 2018, which indicated that drinking water was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium to humans.