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Abstract

The present study addresses the consequences of materialistic value-orientation (i.e. Acquisition Centrality) on the effect of the sense of control on religious experiences of the urban consumer class of Bangladesh. The central thesis is that economic transformation may contribute to the materialistic value-orientation and exert a control on the social experience; nonetheless, it would not exert any effect between the relationship of the Locus of Control and the role of religion. To test the thesis, the research investigates; given the economic growth begets acquisition centrality on a larger scale and these values, in return, often form the new purpose of social lives and emerge as a potential social force of modernity. Can religion as a century-old social institution continue to have strong-hold on the definition of social reality? To answer the question, this Cross-sectional research administered a survey of 1246 respondents from ten randomly selected distinct areas of Dhaka city and analyzed the data within a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. The findings suggest that the people with high (External) sense of control are more likely to be influenced by their religious experiences and the people with low (Internal) sense of control have high Acquisition Centrality; Acquisition Centrality strengthened the influence of External Locus of Control on the influence of religion.

Abstract

Evidence from literature shows that deviant behavior is on high side among undergraduates in Nigeria whereas some certain psychosocial factors causing this phenomenon have not been fully explored. This study examined whether age, gender, socio-economic status and attitude towards drug abuse determine deviant behavior among the undergraduate students. It adopted ex-post facto design. Simple random sampling technique was used to sample 269 participants. The Prescription Drug Attitudes Questionnaire (PDAQ) and Deviant Behavior Variety Scale (DBVS) were used to gather data from the participants. T-test analysis and multiple regression were used to test the formulated hypotheses. The results revealed that age, monthly allowance and attitude towards drug abuse have significant joint prediction of deviant behavior (R=.358 R2 =.128, F=10.594, p<.05) while only attitude towards drug abuse independently predicted deviant behavior (R=.236, R2 =.056 F = 17.112; p<.01). Also, there was a significant gender difference on deviant behavior [t (293) = 4.196, p<.01], where male respondents scored high significantly (M=4.09, SD=3.44) compared to female respondents (M=2.53, SD=2.31) on deviant behavior. It is therefore recommended that policy makers in educational sector and the governing council of tertiary institutions need to create awareness on the debilitating effects of drugs on students’ behavior, especially among males.

Abstract

The present paper has identified two career models, the Protean Career and the Boundaryless Career, that can be considered to accommodate higher education graduates’ personal and professional needs, as well as the flexibility and adaptability requirements of the current labor market. The research used the data from a tracer study applied online to the graduates of the West University of Timisoara, with a response rate of 25% (which falls within the response rate for similar studies at the European level).

There has been an increased dynamic of the number of jobs compared to the short period since they have been active on the labor market, especially among male graduates. At the level of individual factors that can influence career success, the importance given to both objective and subjective values is observed. The results have shown that for graduates, income, job security, the possibility of promotion, the use of knowledge, but especially leisure time, are equal priorities, with consistent values in time for both stages of the study. Moreover, there has been a significant negative association between the variables of leisure time and job satisfaction (r (522) = -.17, p <.001). Given the mode of action, the high dynamics of jobs, which reflect the much-needed flexibility in the dynamic context of the labor market, and the values that have guided job search, often working and studying at the same time, the pattern of employment career that most accurately describes the career profile of graduates seems to be that of the Protean career (the path with a heart), also called the career of the 21st century.

Abstract

European countries interest for archaeological heritage, as part of the cultural landscape, was firstly expressed at the London Convention (1969), whose content was later revised by La Valetta Convention (1992). Romania joined this Convention in 2000, thus assuming the mission to protect and preserve the archaeological heritage, facing with massive economic development and urban expansion. Although we speak of a consecrated historical center, in Timisoara’s urban landscape preventive archaeology has become a reality only from 2004, when first researches were conducted. During the last few years, local infrastructure development has determined an extension of archaeological investigations over the historical area of the city, with major influences especially over public transportation (most of the times hampered, sometimes deviated, even blocked in the specific area, during archaeological research). Our approach focuses on multiple facets and implications of preventive archaeology over Timisoara’s urban landscape, from immediate, obvious issues (such as population’s satisfaction regarding archaeological investigations, their consequences (over access in the area, safety or transportation)), to long-term results (over local tourism, urban development or locals’ education for protecting and promoting cultural heritage).

Abstract

Alcohol use among students in tertiary institutions has long been established as a major public health concern. Also, previous research has shown that individuals with depression are particularly susceptible to alcohol use. There is, however, a paucity of empirical studies focusing on whether this relation is moderated by gender or buffered by a sense of inner meaning fulfilment. We assessed the moderating roles of gender and inner meaning fulfilment in the relationship between depression and alcohol use among university students in Nigeria. A correlational survey design was utilized. Data were collected from 1,173 students (57% male) aged between 16 and 36 years selected across six Nigerian universities. Data were subjected to SPSS v.23 for statistical analysis. Our findings show that depression, gender, inner meaning fulfilment significantly correlated with alcohol use. The effect of depression on alcohol was positive and significant (b=.439, se=.049, p=.000). Inner meaning fulfilment significantly moderated the relationship between depression and alcohol use (b=-.163, se=.034, p=.000). Depression was established as a significant risk factor for alcohol use, regardless of gender, and inner meaning fulfilment may buffer this association. Implications and recommendations are discussed.

Abstract

In February 2015 the UK TV station Channel 4 started screening James Bluemel’s series “The Romanians Are Coming”, a three-part documentary film about “the lives of poor Romanian people who seek work in Great Britain, seen through the eyes of the British people”. This documentary provoked strong opposition from some Romanian politicians and mass media outlets. In the UK the reaction was a contrasting one: sympathy, understanding and compassion. We showed the series to three Romanian university classes in 2017-18 and the students largely had a negative reaction similar to that of those Romanian commentators. A standard content analysis of the film, however, suggests that it gives a positive image of Romanian immigrants in the UK. Despite this, our audiences tended to form a negative perception of the film. We attribute this disparity to the wording of its title activating two classical stereotypes: that Romanians are often Roma, and that poor people are a source of social problems. The film as a whole in fact projects an opposite message, but once these stereotypes have been activated the content is automatically perceived as negative.

Abstract

This study examined the influence of psychosocial factors on learning difficulties among adolescents with special needs. A cross-sectional survey design was utilized. One hundred and twenty adolescents comprising 56.7% males were purposively selected among students at a facility for special needs individuals in Ilorin, Nigeria. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire containing perceived stigma of intellectual disability scale, social support questionnaire and Colorado learning difficulties questionnaire. Only individuals who voluntarily consented to participate were included in the study. Data were subjected to statistical analysis utilizing the SPSS v20. There was no significant gender difference on learning difficulties among individuals with special needs (t (118) =. 138, p>.05). Individuals with high perceived stigma reported significant higher learning difficulties compared to their peers with low perceived stigma (t (118) = 15.70; p˂.05). There was a significant influence of type of disability on learning difficulty (F (2, 117) =9.152, p< .01); individuals with intellectual impairment exhibited more learning difficulty compared with those with visual impairment (8.09) and those with hearing impairment (11.62). The study recommends that government should reinforce law that protect individuals living with disability and enhance their learning in schools. It is also important that sufficient support services are made available for these students to reinforce their motivation for school learning.

Abstract

The study examined the influence of impulsivity on undergraduates’ sexual risk behaviour and also scrutinized the mediating roles of family type and peer pressure on undergraduates’ sexual risk behaviour in Southwestern Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey that employed a multi-stage sampling procedure in which respondents were selected at different levels and stages. A total of 1080 respondents selected from six Universities participated in the study. Their age ranges from 15-19 years with a mean of 15.9±1.2 years. Data gathered through Impulsive Behaviour Scale and the Sexual Behaviour Inventory was analysed by t-test and ANCOVA. The result showed that impulsivity (t = 6.04, df =1078, p <0.05) had significant influence on the sexual risk behaviour of undergraduates in Southwestern Nigeria. The result further showed that age: F (2, 1077) = 18.20, p < 0.05; family type F (2, 1077) = 25.41, p <0. 05 and peer pressure F (2, 1077) = 53.13, p< 0.05 have an intervening impact on the influence of impulsivity F (2, 1073) = 1.37, p < 0.05) on sexual risk behaviour of the undergraduates. The study concluded that impulsivity enhances sexual risk behaviour of undergraduates in Southwestern Nigeria.