Porous silica, silica-cobalt, silica-zirconia and zirconia membranes were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Multi-step coating (two, six, and ten steps) was used to reduce the defectiveness of the mesoporous layer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that an increase in the number of coating steps improved the mesoporous layer quality. The results obtained from gas permeability tests with nitrogen and argon, however, indicated a reduction in the gas permeability with increasing coating steps. The reduction in gas permeability from two to six coating steps was more pronounced than from sixto ten- coating steps. It was found that six-step coating was economically justified in obtaining a uniform mesoporous layer. The results of pore radius calculations by Knudsen flow mechanism revealed that the pores in the silica, silica-cobalt, and zirconia membranes were in the mesoporous range. The sols with a mean particle size more than 100 nm are not recommended for synthesis of mesoporous layer free of defects. Furthermore, the type of acid used as a catalyst is also important in obtaining a layer without defectiveness.
Co@Co3O4@Nitrogen doped carbon (Co@Co3O4@NDC) composite is synthesized by high temperature carbonization of ionic liquids followed by low temperature thermal oxidation. In the process of high temperature carbonization, cobalt ions are reduced to metallic cobalt, producing Co@Nitrogen doped carbon (Co@NDC). Co@Co3O4@NDC composite is obtained after low temperature oxidation, in which a part of the metallic cobalt is oxidized to Co3O4. The structural characterizations indicate that the composite is composed of three crystalline phases (carbon, Co and Co3O4). The results of transmission electron microscopy study show that the carbon materials not only coat the Co@Co3O4 nanoparticles, but also form carbon network that connects the Co@Co3O4 nanoparticles. This conductive carbon network is beneficial to improve the electrochemical performance of the composite. The electrochemical test results show that the Co@Co3O4@NDC composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, delivering the discharge capacities of 790 and 304 mAh·g−1 after 1500 cycles at 5 C and 10 C. This excellent electrochemical performance is due to synergistic effects of Co3O4, cobalt nanoparticles embedded in carbon which has high conductivity, and nitrogen functional groups.
Hybrid white light-emitting devices (HWLEDs) were fabricated using FTO/PEDOT: PSS/PbS/Alq3/Ni system and synthesized by phase separation process. In the present study, the multiple excitons generation in lead sulfide (PbS) NCs, which is characteristic of PbS NCs, was used to induce an effective and regulated energy transfer to an HWLED. The HWLED consisted of three layers successively deposited on FTO glass substrate; the first layer consisted of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) blended with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) organic polymer in the 1:1 ratio, while the second layer consisted of PbS NCs. Finally, above the layer of the PbS NCs, Tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) layer was deposited. The white light was generated with quite a good efficiency due to the confinement effect that makes the energy gap greater. The characteristics of the current-voltage (I-V) indicate acceptable conditions for the generation of white light by multiple excitons. It was found that the emission levels able to produce white luminescence, classified based on the coordinate system of chromaticity (CIE 1931), are x = 0.31, y = 0.33 while the correlated color temperature (CCT) is about 6250 K. The HWLEDs made from PbS NCs with hole injection from the organic polymer (PEDOT: PSS with PMMA), and electron injection from organic molecules (Alq3) are capable of white light generation.
A sequence of N-doped carbon materials has been synthesized using poly(acrylonitrile)-ionic liquid copolymers as carbon precursors. The nitrogen content and configuration in carbon materials has been changed regularly within a certain range by adjusting the proportion of ionic liquids. We found that the capacity and rate performance increased dramatically after the introduction of ionic liquids, which was attributed to incorporation of higher amount pyridinic-N, pyrrolic-N into the carbon materials. Besides, with the increase of the graphitic-N, the initial Coulombic efficiency decreased from 58.5 % to 53.47 % and the RSEI raised from 66.34 Ω to 140.96 Ω, which was attributed to the higher cohesive energy of Li dimmer than adsorption energy of graphitic-N with Li, since more lithium clusters during the formation of SEI film were formed. The electrochemical tests also revealed the negative role of graphitic-N in the capacity. Therefore, this work provides a feasible method to design the nitrogen content and configuration of the N-doped carbon materials.
Laser-induced local crystallization in Finemet-type alloy was studied using X-ray diffraction, SEM and EDX methods. For investigated conditions of irradiation (wavelength λ = 1.06 µm, laser power density 50 W/cm2), it was found that primary crystallization starts with the formation of the nanocrystalline α-Fe(Si) solid solution at shorter exposure time and the second step crystallization with the nanocrystalline hexagonal H-phase formation occurs in longer exposure time. Changes in the local element concentration were observed at the surface of the irradiated zone and at the ribbon fracture. It was shown that the nonlinear temperature field due to the laser irradiation resulted in changes of the local elements concentration and this feature changed crystallization mechanism of the Finemet-type alloy.
Nanocrystalline zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films are prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method using aqueous solutions of zinc chloride, thiourea ammonium hydroxide along with non-toxic complexing agent tri-sodium citrate in alkaline medium at 80 °C. The deposition time and annealing effects on the optical and morphological properties are studied. The morphological, compositional, and optical properties of the films are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. SEM micrographs exhibit uniform surface coverage. UV-Vis (300 nm to 800 nm) spectrophotometric measurements show transparency of the films (transmittance ranging from 69 % to 81 %), with a direct allowed energy band gap in the range of 3.87 eV to 4.03 eV. After thermal annealing at 500 °C for 120 min, the transmittance increases up to 87 %.
We report a facile one-step non aqueous synthesis of oleic acid stabilized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) with an average diameter of 3 nm to 4 nm by hot injection method. The synthesized oleic acid capped QDs observed by TEM were nearly spherical. The optical properties of QDs were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The structures of QDs and their surface passivation were further verified using transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The quenching effect of the CdTe QD was explored by addition of CdTe nanocrystals into a solution of rod-coil homopolymer (poly[10-(6-(9,9-diethyl-7-(pyridin-4-yl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)naphthalen-2-yloxy) decyl methacrylate]) (PFNA) having pendent pyridine. The gradual addition of quantum dots to the solution of PFNA quenched the PL spectra of PFNA. This may be used to explore the coordination ability of pyridine containing homopolymer with CdTe quantum dots.
Cutting with TiAlN or CrAlN tip PVD-coated tungsten carbide-based inserts manufactured by powder metallurgy, we found no significant difference in the wear behavior of inserts regardless of whether the insert was used in wet or dry conditions. We determined the adhesion properties of the coating layers with a scratch test and by Daimler–Benz test. On the tungsten-based carbide cutting tool, the thinner TiAlN coating showed slightly better adhesion than the thicker CrAlN coating.
Joint implants and fixings are subject to many stresses throughout their life cycle. Despite careful design, material selection, manufacturing technology and proper surgical technology, implant damage and, in extreme cases, fracture can occur. Investigation of injuries is important from the perspective of the patient, the care provider and the manufacturer, among other things, by exploring the cause of the fracture to prevent similar cases. In the present study we performed failure analysis of a hip implant and a bone fixation plate. Fracture surfaces, material composition, material structure and hardness were also investigated. Based on the work done, we determined what might have led to the fracture in both cases.