The aim of this study was to determine changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS), serum antioxidant capacity (SAC), oxidative stress index (OSi), and α-tocopherol (α-T) during the periparturient period in healthy and mastitic cows and to further investigate whether these parameters can be used as a tool for identifying cows at higher risk of developing mastitis.
Material and Methods
Blood samples from 110 dairy cows from two commercial farms were obtained at dry-off, calving, and 30 days post-partum. Healthy cows formed group A (n = 90) and mastitic cows B (n = 20). Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation, and the aforementioned parameters were determined. A general linear model was used for analysing the associations among the determined blood parameters, the health of the animals’ udder, and the sampling time.
ROS and OSi values were higher (P < 0.001) by a respective 14% and 26%, and SAC values lower (P < 0.001) by 10% in group B than in group A at calving. ROC curve analysis revealed that all determined parameters at calving and α-T at dry-off and 30 days post-partum had excellent or acceptable predicting ability for mastitis incidence.
This information provides a tool for early identification of cows at high risk of developing mastitis, allowing the implementation of intervention strategies.
Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile is a Gram+, anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that can produce toxins, and it is mainly because its virulence is attributed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of C. difficile and hyper virulent ribotypes in chicken carcasses and the antibiotic susceptibility of isolated strains.
Material and Methods
C. difficile was isolated from chicken carcasses by microbiological methods, its ribotypes were identified by means of PCR, the toxin production ability was defined by ELISA, and the susceptibility of the isolates to selected antibiotics was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration evaluator strips.
The bacterium was isolated from 69 out of 185 (37.3%) examined chicken carcass samples, and six out of the 69 (8.7%) isolates were identified as ribotype 027. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100.0%), vancomycin (97.1%), metronidazole (88.4%), and tetracycline (95.7%), whereas they were resistant to cefotaxime (97.1%) and imipenem (89.9%).
The results of this study demonstrate the presence of toxigenic C. difficile isolates such as ribotype 027 (one of the most common causes of C. difficile infection in humans) in chicken carcasses. Although there is no case for stating that C. difficile is a food-borne pathogen, the presence of C. difficile in chicken may be considered to be a potential risk to consumers.
This paper presents the results of the microscopic examination of dairy cow ovaries.
Material and Methods
The examined dairy cows were culled in a slaughterhouse. In all of them, pathological changes (n = 82) associated with adenomyosis had been previously diagnosed, and additionally in some cows (n = 18) so had mammary gland cell injury, including mastitis purulenta.
There was vast variability among the investigated individuals in the degree of disease and type of pathological changes in the examined tissue specimens. In all examined ovaries, the most prominent lesions were neoplastic metaplasia of various cell types. They were PEComa, rete ovarii cell neoplasm, granulosa cell tumour, and a single case of haemangioma cavernosum, and the first of these types of ovarian tumours was the prominent neoplasia. In some cases, they grew simultaneously with the other types of tumours, but tumour tissue never extended beyond the ovarian capsule. Sometimes, the ovarian tumours were of microscopic volume, for instance the foci of granulosa cell tumours.
The lack of changes in ovarian anatomic structure, and minute neoplastic tissue foci, make it impossible to diagnose these lesions in the ovaries of living animals. The presented original data may be valuable in understanding the aetiology of dairy cow infertility, as well as in facilitating urgently needed research into findings new methods, which might be used in the diagnosis of neoplastic diseases ante mortem.
Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins which form pores in cell membranes and take part in the transport of water, contributing to the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance and are widely distributed in various tissues and organs. The high expression of AQPs has been described in the digestive system, where large-scale absorption and secretion of fluids occurs. AQPs are also present in the nervous system, but the majority of studies have involved the central nervous system. This paper is a review of the literature concerning relatively little-known issues, i.e. the distribution and functions of AQPs in nervous structures supplying the digestive organs.
The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of gross composition, somatic cell count, urea content, and fatty acids (FA) composition of bulk milk from single-breed and multi-breed farms in alpine area, keeping either Brown Swiss (BS), Holstein Friesian (HF), Simmental (SI), or their combinations. Gross milk composition, urea content, and FA composition were predicted using mid-infrared spectroscopy. Observations were grouped in 7 combinations consisting of 3 single-breed and 4 multi-breed types of herd. A mixed linear model was used for data analysis, accounting for the fixed effects of herd composition (7 combinations), month of sampling, year of sampling, and the interactions between herd composition and month of sampling, and between herd composition and year of sampling. Farm was included as random effect. Results highlighted that about two thirds of South Tyrolean farms were single-breed and herds with more than 20 lactating cows changed herd structure over time, switching from multi- to single-breed. Single-breed BS farms produced milk with greater fat, protein, casein, lactose, and FA content than single-breed HF and SI farms. Further, multi-breed herds including BS cows produced milk with greater fat, protein, casein, and polyunsaturated FA content than multi-breed HF+SI herds. Overall, single-breed SI farms produced milk with lower somatic cell count than other herd combinations. Despite the number of BS cows in South Tyrol has decreased in favor of SI in the last years, this breed is still the most interesting for alpine dairy farming to achieve optimal milk quality in both single- and multi-breed scenarios. The tendency to move to SI is mainly related to good milk performance of SI cows coupled with their robustness, high carcass value, high market value of calves, and adaptability to mountain farming system.
The present study investigated the possible effects of including salt of short chain fatty acid, sodium acetate (SA), on skin mucus immune parameters and immune, antioxidant and growth-related genes expression in common carp. There is a little data available about the effective role of SA on immune, antioxidant and growth related genes expression as well as skin mucus immune parameters. The aim of this study was to analysis the effect of SA intake on these factors using common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as model organism. Two hundred and forty healthy common carp (mean weight = 15 ± 0.9 g) supplied and randomly stocked into 12 fiberglass tanks 200 L (20 fish per tank) assigned to four treatments and triplicates. The study was performed in a completely randomized design. The treatments were feeding carps with experimental diets containing different levels (0.0 [control], 0.5, 1 and 2%) of SA. The skin mucus total immunoglobulin and total protein levels in fish fed 2% SA showed significant increase compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Results showed a significant increase in the GH gene expression in 1 and 2% SA treatments (P < 0.05). The carps were fed with diet content 2% SA showed significantly increase in IGF-1 expression (P < 0.05). The expression of GSTa, and GPX (antioxidant genes) revealed a significant increase in the GSTa (fish fed SA at 1% and 2% levels) and GPX gene expression with fish fed 2% SA (P < 0.05). Supplementation of fish diet with SA induce slight elevation in the intestine of all immune-related genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL8 and Lyz) compared to the control group (P > 0.05). However, Lyz gene significantly up-regulated in 1 or 2% SA treatments. These results confirmed beneficial effects of SA as a feed additive in common carp culture.
The present study aimed at evaluating the influences of pomegranate peel meal on the growth performance, hematology, and blood biochemistry of rainbow trout. Fish fed at 5 varying levels of pomegranate peel meal (0 %, 1%, 2 %, 3%, and 4%) for 60 days. The obtained results showed that WG was significantly higher in fish fed at the rate of 1% than the other groups, while SGR was significantly increased in fish fed 1% and followed by the ration of 2% (P <0.05). SGR of fish fed at the rate of 4% revealed the lowest value among the groups (P <0.05). However, FCR displayed the lowest values in fish fed at the rate of 1% or 2%, while the highest value was observed in fish fed at the rate of 4% (P <0.05). The survival rate was increased by the rate of 1% than the control without differences with the other groups (P <0.05). RBCs were significantly higher in fish fed at the rate of 0%, 1%, and 2% than fish fed at the rate of 3% and 4%. Hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels were increased by feeding pomegranate meal at the rate of 1% than the other groups, while fish fed the control diet displayed higher Hb and HCT levels than fish fed at the rate of 2%, 3%, and 4% (P <0.05). WBCs displayed significant differences among the groups and increased by increasing the level of pomegranate meal in the diet. The blood total protein was decreased in fish fed 2%, 3%, and 4% than fish fed at the rate of 0% and 1% of pomegranate meal. The glucose value displayed the highest level in fish fed at the rate of 3% of pomegranate meal than the other groups. The triglycerides were reduced by pomegranate meal at the rate of 2% than 3% and 4% without differences with the control and 1%. The blood total cholesterol was reduced in fish fed at the rate of 1% of pomegranate meal than the other groups (P <0.05). The blood IgM and complement components (C3 and C4) were increased by increasing the supplementation level of pomegranate meal with the highest value in fish fed at the rate of 3% (P <0.05). In conclusion, dietary pomegranate meal at the rate of 1% is recommended for enhancing the growth rate and health status of rainbow trout.
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of inorganic (ferrous sulfate [FeSO4] and FeSO4 + phytase [FeSO4+F]) and organic forms of iron (ferrous glycine chelate [FeGly], Fe-Gly + phytase [Fe-Gly+F]) on the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α-AGP), haptoglobin (Hp), transferrin (TRF) and iron in the blood and liver tissue of poultry. Ross 308 roosters were used in this study. The APPs levels in the chicken serum and liver tissues were assayed using the double-antibody sandwich ELISA kits for chickens. The iron levels in serum and liver samples were measured using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that the serum and hepatic iron concentration in the chickens receiving Fe-Gly and Fe-Gly-F were significantly higher than those in the control group and in the chickens receiving iron in the form of sulphates. Further, serum CRP and SAA concentrations were lower in the chickens from the supplemented groups than in those from the control. The hepatic CRP concentration was higher in the supplemented groups than in the control group. The serum and hepatic TRF concentration were highest in the chickens receiving FeSO4 and FeSO4-F. The hepatic Hp concentration was higher in the chickens receiving organic forms of iron than in the control chickens, whereas the serum Hp concentrations were similar across the groups. The highest α-1-AGP concentration was found in the livers of the chickens receiving Fe-Gly and Fe-Gly-F. Taken together, these findings suggest that iron had the most beneficial effects for poultry in terms of health, performance and immunity when added to the feed in the form of glycine chelate.
The research was performed on 136 male lambs at slaughter weight from mean 32 to 42 kg of the following Polish native breeds: Uhruska (UHR), Pomorska (POM), Czarnogłówka (CZGŁ), Cakiel Podhalański (CKP), Wrzosówka (WRZOS), Świniarka (SWIN), Wielkopolska (WLP) and Polish Merino old type (MST). The longissimus lumborum muscle was tested to establish it’s basic chemical composition, physical and chemical traits as well as sensory traits. The meat quality of tested breeds was high especially in terms of sensory traits. However high variability of studied traits was observed depending on the breed e.g. the average pH24 ranged between 5.58 (WLP) and 5.77 (WRZOS), intramuscular fat content ranged between 1.98% (CZGŁ) and 4.12% (WLP), meat tenderness varied from 4.2 points (POM) to 4.64 points (UHR). Somewhat dark meat colour was observed in all breeds which is worth noticing (L* from 34.86 to 38.50). According to the general estimation of tested quality traits the following breeds were on the top of the ranking: SWIN, UHR, WLP and WRZOS. Further down in the ranking the following breeds were placed: POM, MST and CKP.
The present study was aimed to evaluate hematological and oxidative stress parameters in domestic dogs infested naturally (n=10) by Rhipicephalus sp. to compare with non-infested dogs (n=10). All blood samples were collected from brachial vein into tubes EDTA for the hematological analysis such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hemoglobin (HGB) and platelets (PLT). Serum was rapidly separated after centrifugation and stored at -20 °C until it was used for malondialdehyde (MDA) and 2,2’-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) inhibition measurements. HGB in non-infested dogs was significantly higher than in infested dogs (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in RBCs, WBCs and PLT between both groups (P>0.05). The mean of MDA concentration was high in infested dogs (0.92±0.62 nmol/ml) compared to non-infested dogs (0.75±0.25 nmol/ml). On the other hand, the percentage of ABTS inhibition was similar in both groups (P=0.71). High tick number seems significantly affected WBCs (P<0.0001) and HGB (P<0.001) in infested dogs. Concerning oxidative status, there was no significant differences (P>0.05) between low and high infested dogs, neither in the amount of MDA nor in the ABTS inhibition. In conclusion, infested dogs induced RBCs alterations, which coincided with the oxidative damage, as evidenced by MDA serum levels. Also, there was a relationship between the tick number in infested dogs and the hematological parameters.