Biosensors can find application in meat and meat products testing for safety, including microbial and other contaminants, and quality, including meat freshness, beef tenderness and pork quality defects. The available biosensors enable the evaluation of freshness, the classification of tenderness of meat products, the evaluation of the glycolysis extent and the presence of the microbial and other contaminants. Since biosensors depend on receptor types, the expansion of knowledge on metabolic transformations occurring in meat contributes to the development of new potential markers and indicators. Examples include assays for glucose, lactates, hypoxanthines, calpastastins, microbial and other contaminants in meat products, augmenting conventional methods. At the same time, biosensors rely on transducers for detection, requiring achievement in many fields including, nanotechnology and optics, among others. Biosensors have potential to become a fundamental tool for monitoring and controlling safety and quality of meat products in the future. Hence the aim of the present paper is to present the current state of knowledge on the application of biosensors in meat.
In order to characterize the volatile compounds composition of lamb meat, 3 groups of baked leg muscle samples from two Polish native sheep breeds: Świniarka aged 9 months (S9), Wrzosówka aged 9 months (W9), and Wrzosówka aged 7 months (W7), were analyzed by HS-SPME-GC/MS, followed by multivariate statistics comprising the F-Ratio method for variables pre-selection, and PCA-LDA analysis. Ninety seven volatile compounds were determined, out of which 74 were identified. The largest classes of volatile compounds were aldehydes and furans followed by alcohols, hydrocarbons, ketones, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. Statistically significant differences between the S9, W9, and W7 groups were observed for 11 volatiles, i.e.: pentanal; hexanal; 1,3-octadiene; benzaldehyde; 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene; 3-octen-2-one; 2-octenal; 2-hexylfuran; tetradecanal; pentadecanal; hexadecanal. The HS-SPME-GC/MS method coupled with chemometrics, based on the relative intensity spectral data of these volatiles, proved to be an effective tool for the discrimination of lambs according to breed and age. The classification accuracy value for the S9, W9, and W7 groups was 100%.
The present study investigated the possible effects of including salt of short chain fatty acid, sodium acetate (SA), on skin mucus immune parameters and immune, antioxidant and growth-related genes expression in common carp. There is a little data available about the effective role of SA on immune, antioxidant and growth related genes expression as well as skin mucus immune parameters. The aim of this study was to analysis the effect of SA intake on these factors using common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as model organism. Two hundred and forty healthy common carp (mean weight = 15 ± 0.9 g) supplied and randomly stocked into 12 fiberglass tanks 200 L (20 fish per tank) assigned to four treatments and triplicates. The study was performed in a completely randomized design. The treatments were feeding carps with experimental diets containing different levels (0.0 [control], 0.5, 1 and 2%) of SA. The skin mucus total immunoglobulin and total protein levels in fish fed 2% SA showed significant increase compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Results showed a significant increase in the GH gene expression in 1 and 2% SA treatments (P < 0.05). The carps were fed with diet content 2% SA showed significantly increase in IGF-1 expression (P < 0.05). The expression of GSTa, and GPX (antioxidant genes) revealed a significant increase in the GSTa (fish fed SA at 1% and 2% levels) and GPX gene expression with fish fed 2% SA (P < 0.05). Supplementation of fish diet with SA induce slight elevation in the intestine of all immune-related genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL8 and Lyz) compared to the control group (P > 0.05). However, Lyz gene significantly up-regulated in 1 or 2% SA treatments. These results confirmed beneficial effects of SA as a feed additive in common carp culture.
The efficiency of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis and white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on growth performance, blood metabolites, carcass characteristics, meat composition and nutrient digestibility of lambs fed crushed whole palm leaf hay was investigated for 105 d. In Experiment 1 (Growth experiment), twenty-four lambs (29.5 ± 1.25 kg) were divided into four feed-based treatments: (1) concentrate and wheat straw ad libitum (control), (2) palm leaf hay (DPL), (3) palm leaf hay supplemented with 2 g of B. subtilis and P. chrysosporium (DPL2) or (4) palm leaf hay supplemented with 4 g of B. subtilis and P. chrysosporium (DPL4). In Experiment 2 (Digestibility experiment), twelve rams, three from each treatment, were used to study nutrient digestibility using the faecal bag technique. Results of the Experiment 1 showed that the DPL4 showed greater (P=0.049) live-weight gain than the control. The diets containing palm leaf hay showed lower (P=0.001) roughage and total feed intake and higher (P=0.001) feed efficiency than the control. Increased serum total protein, globulin, urea-N, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were observed with the DPL4 (P˂0.05). Additionally, diets containing palm leaf hay showed higher ALT levels than the control. The DPL4 increased the hot carcass weight (P=0.006) and dressing percentage (P=0.036), and the diets supplemented with B. subtilis and P. chrysosporium decreased (P˂0.05) the tail fat and all fat levels compared with the DPL treatment. Results of the Experiment 2 showed that nutrient digestibility was lower (P˂0.05) with the DPL and DPL2 than with the control and DPL4. Compared with the control, nutrient digestibility of DPL4 was not affected. It is concluded that replacement of wheat straw with palm leaf hay did not affect the feed utilization or animal performance of the lambs; however, supplementation with B. subtilis and P. chrysosporium at 4 g/lamb daily enhanced the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics without any adverse effects on blood metabolites.
This study evaluated the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on the growth performance, immune response, and disease resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were distributed in four groups and fed diets with varying levels of GSE at 0, 10, 20, and 30 g/kg for 56 days. The final length in fish fed with 20 and 30 g GSE/kg diet significantly increased in comparison with the control group (P<0.05). The final weight and weight gain of fish fed with GSE were statistically higher than the control diet, while the feed conversion ratio was lower in GSE groups than the control. Hematological parameters did not statistically enhance with GSE supplemented diets (P>0.05). However, fish fed with 30 g GSE/kg diet displayed a higher WBC count significantly than the other group (P<0.05). The serum total protein and globulin in fish fed with 20 g GSE/kg diet significantly increased compared to the control (P<0.05). A similar pattern was noticed in results for serum and mucus lysozyme activity with a significant increase in fish fed with 20 and 30 g GSE/kg diet compared to the control (P<0.05). Total antibody levels in serum and mucus samples were also increased in fish by dietary GSE with maximum levels by 20 and 30 g GSE/kg diet. Besides, mucus protease activity was higher in fish received 20 and 30 g GSE/kg diet with maximum level shown in fish fed with 30 g GSE/kg diet compared to the control group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, all groups showed higher mucus antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila with the highest activity in 30 g GSE/kg diet in comparison with the control group. The cumulative mortality was 36.67% when fish fed with 30 g GSE/kg diet and challenged with A. hydrophila. However, the mortality rate was 40% and 53.33% in fish fed 20 and 30 g GSE/kg diet, respectively. This study suggests that supplementation of GSE could significantly enhance the growth performance, immune responses, and disease resistance against A. hydrophila in common carp.
Two mutations affecting the ovulation rate and litter size are segregating in Olkuska sheep population, FecXO in the BMP15 gene, and the G7 site mutation in GDF9 gene. Homozygous carriers of both mutations are hyperprolific, contrary to the sterility observed in homozygous carriers of most other BMP15 and GDF9 mutations. The objective of this study was to assess frequency and phenotypic effects of both mutations. Blood samples were obtained from 740 individuals, 111 rams and 629 ewes, out of which 91 rams and 561 ewes were successfully genotyped for the BMP15 and GDF9 loci. The reproductive performance included a number of lambs born/born alive and a number of lambs reared until 60 days of age, and for a subset of ewe ovulation rates. The study proved a high frequency of the FecXO mutation in two flocks that have been selected for many years for increased litter size (0.7 - 1.0 in breeding ewes and rams respectively), and a moderate frequency in another 19 private flocks (0.4 - 0.5). The frequency of the GDF9 mutation was low, with only 50 sheep out of 312 genotyped being carriers of the GDF9/G7 mutation, including three homozygous carriers. The FecXO mutation in the BMP15 had a significant effect on both litter size and the ovulation rate. The single copy in heterozygous carriers increased litter size by 0.255 (0.063), while the effect of two copies in homozygous genotypes was + 0.874 (0.081) lambs born. Due to the low frequency of the GDF9 mutation, it can only be preliminary concluded that litter size has been increased in double carries, both of the BM15 and GDF9 mutation, which may suggest their additive interaction. The positive effect of both mutations supports their direct use in selection programmes.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these substitutions on body weight and slaughtering performance, post-mortem changes, sensory characteristics and chemical composition of selected muscle groups of male and female pheasants. The tests were carried out on pheasants during 5–16 weeks of rearing in enclosed aviaries. Four groups of 8 females and 8 males were formed, and the experimental factor was the supplementation of calcium, iron, zinc and copper salts with glycinates of these elements. The control group received a feed blend containing 100% of the mineral need as salts. In the E-25 group, 25% of the salts were replaced by glycinates, in the E-50 group 50% of the salts were replaced, and in the E-75 group only glycinates comprising 75% of the total mineral content were used and no salts were included, with vitamin D3 replaced by calcitriol. For the duration of the study, feeding was at will and the birds had free access to water. In addition, pheasants were weighed at the age of 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Daily feed intake was monitored. At the end of the experiment, when all the pheasants were 16 weeks old, they were weighed and decapitated. The breast, thighs and drumsticks and the heart, liver and gizzard were removed from the chilled carcasses. Supplementation of calcium, iron, zinc and copper salts with 50% glycinates in feed mixtures for pheasants over a period of 5–16 weeks resulted in a slight improvement in the slaughter weight of birds and a significant increase in crude ash, calcium and zinc, while at 75% supplementation and when calcitriol was used instead of vitamin D3, increased phosphorus levels were found in the pheasant muscles analyzed. Males had higher body weight, body weight gain, carcass, liver and gizzard weights, and their muscles had more magnesium and potassium and less calcium, sodium and iron than females.
In this report, we describe the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) contamination in commercial animal-derived sera and vaccines against animal viral pathogens on the market in Poland. Antibodies against BVDV were detected in 4/45 sera samples (8.9%) using an ELISA test. The presence of BVDV antigen using ELISA was found using ELISA in 3/45 serum samples (6.6%) and 18/172 vaccine samples (10.5%). An RT-PCR was conducted using primers targeting two genome regions, the five prime untranslated region (5’UTR) and N-terminal protease (Npro). BVDV RNA was detected in 33/45 (73.3%) of sera, and 11/172 samples (6.4%) of collected vaccines, of which one vaccine did not declare BVDV strain in its composition. A single serum showed the presence of an infectious virus and only one was contaminated with all 3 species of BVDV. The most frequent species in sera was BVDV-3 (75.5%), whereas in vaccines only BVDV-1 was identified. Sequence analysis showed that the tested commercial sera and one vaccine were contaminated by six genotypes of BVDV: -1a, -1b, -1c, -1d, -2a, and -3. Identification of BVDV and its genetic material in animal-derived products is important due to the possibility of pestivirus transmission as well as the chance of falsifying the results of a diagnostic test. It also demonstrates the necessity of rigorous monitoring of the bioproducts used in the laboratory and industry level.
The FASN enzyme plays a key role in fatty acids synthesis as the main long-chain fatty acid synthesizer. A non-synonymous SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) (g.17925A>G) located in the thioesterase domain of this enzyme and an effect in fat deposition has been observed, but has not been evaluated in this breed and, moreover, the reason whereby this occurs remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of this SNP on the activity of FASN enzyme in subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue from Holstein Friesian steers. To achieve this, 196 animals were sampled in a local abattoir, genotyped for the FASN g.17924A>G SNP and characterized for fatty acid profile. Then a sub sample of 20 animals per genotype were selected to extract the total protein from subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue to estimate the FASN enzyme activity. The FASN activity for each genotyped animal was assessed indirectly by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of NADPH at 340 nm by spectrophotometry in a 24 well plate in the presence of Acetyl-CoA, Malonyl-CoA, and NADPH. To assess the impact of SNP induced amino acid changes in FASN protein structure, in-silico simulations were performed. Our results indicated that FASN g.17924A>G SNP induces a change in the enzyme activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue, which is higher when the AA genotype is present and lower in the presence of the AG genotype. The in-silico analysis of the amino acid substitution shows that there was a structural change in the dimeric form of the protein between genotypes. Moreover, the global energy between subunits is lower and more favorable when the AA genotype is present and higher and less favorable for the AG genotype. It was also found that the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue was affected when the AG genotype was present, decreasing the C16:0 fatty acid levels and increasing the C18:0 fatty acid levels. The FASN g.17924A>G SNP alters the FASN enzyme structure and activity, leading to a variation in the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue in Holstein Friesian steers. Implications: This SNP could be considered as a tool to improve the fat deposition or marbling and the fatty acid profile in cattle.
In this study, we investigated the effect of modification of 12 d storage conditions of quail eggs from two flocks: at 17–20 weeks of life (A) and 36–39 weeks of life (B) on the incubation time, hatch window (HW), hatching results and chicks quality. The eggs were divided into experimental groups: COI = no pre-incubation (PI); SPIDES = were treated with 4 h PI, delivered at 4, 6, 8 and 10 d of storage; EG SPIDES = were treated with variable time of PI according to the scheme 5 d – 2 h, 7 d – 3 h, 9 d – 5 h and 11 d – 6 h. In addition, in each group, half of the eggs were turned (T) every 12 h, which is indicated as COI T, SPIDES T and EG SPIDES T. Pre-incubation was conducted at 37.8°C and 50–55% RH. It has been demonstrated that both storage profiles contribute to shortened incubation time, yet the HW is deteriorated if T is not applied. The benefits resulting from the EG SPIDES profile is an increase of 2.3 points in the “average score of all chicks” index compared to the COI group. In summary, the use of PI and T, and in particular the EG SPIDES profile with the concomitant use of T during long storage of quail eggs is recommended to obtain a considerable improvement of hatching results and chick quality.