The aim of the study was to analyse the sound environment and the range of sound levels recorded in the delivery room immediately after the birth of a newborn.
Materials and methods
The research method was open observation combined with recording measurements of the sound intensity levels. The material was collected by means of an observation questionnaire. The research was conducted in 11 maternity hospitals in Warsaw. A total of 304 vaginal labours were analysed.
The average sound level in the delivery room after the birth of a newborn was 58.03 ± 7.66 dB, and the sound intensity ranged from 40.30 dB to 78.0 dB. Staff conversations were the most common sources of noise. A statistically significant relationship between the number of people in the delivery room and sound intensity was observed. The number of people positively correlated with the average sound level (R=0.520, p<0.001).
Based on the tests, it was found that the average sound level in the delivery room exceeded the recommended standards. The noise was mainly caused by the activity of staff. The present study indicates the need for staff education and the use of noise reduction procedures.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common atopic disease in young children and most common skin disease in childhood. In the Polish population, the incidence of AD in the group of children aged 6–14 is about 4% and it is underestimated. The disease is chronic and recurrent, and the leading symptom is skin pruritus that in the mechanism of the vicious circle is accompanied by scratching that causes generalized infections. The overall problems lead to a decrease in the quality of life of the child and its parents and to an increased risk of psychosomatic diseases. The complex pathomechanism of AD is due to chronic inflammation of the skin, in which various cell phenotypes are involved. The management is comprehensive and it is aimed at reducing inflammation, improving the skin barrier function, reducing the symptoms of dryness and itching of the skin and secondarily improving the quality of life. The treatment includes intensive skincare, anti-inflammatory treatment based on the proactive use of topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors. Periods of exacerbation of lesions require intensified treatment. In particularly severe, recurrent cases, treatment options can be extended to systemic immunosuppressive drugs, with awareness of their adverse effects. Previous year has brought significant progress in the current treatment of AD in the form of biological treatment. Cytokines and other mediators that play an important role in the pathogenesis of skin inflammation have become a target for new forms of therapy. Drugs for which interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are the targets are particularly represented. Dupilumab is the first biological drug approved for the general treatment of children aged >12 years with moderate to severe AD. Another therapeutic option for topical use is crisaborole, a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. This study presents the current state of research on biological drugs in AD.
Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the key health problems in European countries. This article presents a study that is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) implemented in the WHO European Region since 2007. The main goal of the study is to monitor obesity in early school-aged children. The methodology of the study, the thematic scope of research tools, the organisational principles and the development of research carried out in Poland in the context of existing international assumptions are presented. In Poland, two rounds of the study were financed by the National Health Program, in cooperation with the WHO Office in Poland. The first study was carried out from November to December 2016 on a group of 3,408 children aged 8 years from 135 schools and 2,298 parents, in 9 voivodeships in Poland. The second round was carried out in the last quarter of 2018 in 12 voivodeships. A group of 2691 pupils aged 8 years from the 2nd grade of 140 primary schools in Poland and 2450 parents were examined. Data on body mass index distribution and lifestyle-related behaviours of children and their families were collected. Poland is the first country where blood pressure was measured in all participants of the COSI study. Considering the growing obesity epidemic, reliable monitoring of overweight and obesity in early childhood and the study of determinants of this phenomenon should be a priority for public health. The results obtained from this type of research are a reference point for the design and implementation of accurate prevention initiatives in this age group.
Congenital hepatic arteriovenous malformations (HAVMs), though rare, carry high morbidity and mortality rates if left undiagnosed. The usual clinical presentation is in infancy with congestive heart failure, anaemia and hepatomegaly. There are reports of presentation as persistent pulmonary hypertension in newborns and reports of their spontaneous regression as well. We describe a healthy full-term neonate with HAVM who was presented with isolated massive hepatomegaly and underwent surgical ligation.
The study aimed to analyse the factors that influence the duration of breastfeeding among Polish women.
Materials and methods
The study group consisted of 1,024 mothers of children aged 6–18 months who were breastfeeding or are currently breastfeeding. Data were collected through a computer-assisted Web interview. Univariate analysis and correspondence analysis were performed to determine the predictors of exclusive breast-feeding and breastfeeding among Polish women.
Maternal age, maternal education, pre-pregnancy body mass index, voivodeship, birth weight and due time had a significant impact on breastfeeding duration (p < 0.05). Mothers who were older (35± years of age), had a higher level of education and lived in mid-sized cities were more often breastfeeding exclusively, in accordance with the World Health Organization's recommendations. Women who were younger, had a lower level of education, lived in rural areas, and had a lower BMI breastfed exclusively for a shorter period. The most frequently suggested reason for breastfeeding cessation was maternal concerns about insufficient milk supply (41%). The percentage of women who gave up breastfeeding before the 6th month following the delivery was the highest in the northeastern region of Poland (53%), whereas the percentage of women who stopped exclusive breastfeeding was the highest in the southwest region of Poland (69.4%).
Our study highlights that the reasons for breastfeeding cessation are often complex. Therefore, the promotion of breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life should be a social responsibility.
Alternating hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC) is a rare disease manifested by transient episodes of hemiplegia and other neurological disorders. Delayed motor development has been reported in patients with AHC, but detailed features of the motor impairment have not been described so far.
The aim of the study was to evaluate gross motor function between attacks in a group of Polish patients with AHC.
Materials and methods
The interictal gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Function AHC scale, which consisted of 41 motor tasks. The study group consisted of 10 patients with AHC older than 2 years of age. The control group consisted of 30 age- and gender-matched subjects. The results achieved in each of the 41 tasks by the study subjects were compared to the results obtained with controls using the non-parametric Mann–Whitney U-test. In tasks 38–41, mean times were compared between the study subjects and controls.
The study revealed gross motor function impairment in patients with AHC. The greatest differences compared to controls concerned such skills as standing on toes, walking on toes, walking on heels, as well as running and hopping on one leg and on alternate legs. Significant impairment of the motor function of the upper limbs was also found.
The study confirmed motor function impairment between attacks in patients with AHC. The study findings may indicate the need to introduce individualised physiotherapy management of patients with AHC.
Diffuse or interstitial lung disease (DLD/ILD) comprises a diverse group of disorders that involve the pulmonary parenchyma. Its aetiology varies (which makes the diagnostic process difficult), but congenital diseases, including malformation syndromes or developmental disorders, constitute one of the causative factors. They are rare conditions, and thus their frequency is not high. However, considering the progress and increasing availability of genetic testing, detection of these rare syndromes may increase. The aim of this work is, therefore, to present the symptomatology of selected congenital syndromes with ILD, taking into account the genetic background.
Intussusception is a common cause of obstruction in paediatric patients. Rapid clinical recognition and treatment is important to prevent potentially fatal complications. The present study aims to derive a clinical scoring system for prediction of risk of operative intervention in patients with intussusception.
Materials and methods
Data of 100 patients with intussusception were analyzed retrospectively, and a score was calculated based on clinical parameters – age, presence/absence of symptoms and signs such as abdominal distention, vomiting, lump abdomen, red currant jelly stools and duration of abdominal pain. The maximum score was 12, and the minimum score was 6. This score was then applied to other 50 consecutive patients with intussusception.
Of 100, 13 patients required operative intervention; 87 patients were managed by hydrostatic reduction. In all, four patients with a score of 12 and five patients with a score of 11 required operative intervention. Seven patients had a score of 10, out of which four (57.14%) required operative intervention. A total of 87 patients who had a score of 10 or less were successfully managed non-operatively by ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction. In the next 50 patients, two patients with a score of 9 and all patients with scores of 10 and 11 required operative intervention. Thus, age less than 3 months and more than 2 years, presence of symptoms such as abdominal lump, red currant jelly stools and duration of abdominal pain of 2 or more days were strong predictors of operative intervention.
This clinical score helps to predict the risk of operative intervention required in a child with a diagnosis of intussusceptions – duration of abdominal pain of 48 h or more, presence of abdominal distention and lump and red currant jelly stools are strong predictors of need of operative intervention in patients with intussusception. Higher the score (8 or more, as concluded by this study), more the probability of requiring operative intervention in these patients. Though limited, this study could serve as a pilot work to develop a user-friendly score for early surgical decision making in the management of paediatric intussusception.
In countries where Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine is used, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in young children and notable cause of morbidity/mortality. The authors present material of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with pneumococcal meningitis from archive of Department of Diagnostic Imaging of Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw.
Materials and methods
We performed 27 brain MRI scans and 1 follow-up computed tomography (CT) in 10 children (2 girls and 8 boys) aged from neonate to 5 years at disease onset with proven pneumococcal infection.
Follow-up period range was 0–12 years. Two children underwent only one MRI, one of them died before follow-up and the other was lost from further observation. There was one case of relatively benign disease course with mild changes on MRI. In another seemingly benign case, acute transient hydrocephalus was observed. Six children developed hydrocephalus, and two required ventriculoperitoneal shunting complicated by neuroinfection, shunt malfunction and revisions. Two patients developed epilepsy. In six children, spastic paresis of various severity was diagnosed, up to quadriplegia in one who is under the longest observation (>12 years) and survived in vegetative state. Three other children suffer from delayed psychomotor development to severe intellectual disability.
MRI shows perfectly the degree of central nervous system (CNS) damage during and after pneumococcal invasion. Despite appropriate treatment, disease course may be unpredictably serious. Attempts to eliminate the obligation to vaccinate are extremely irresponsible taking into account potential danger of death, vegetative state or another form of severe damage to CNS. Social and financial costs of care of survivors are very high with shunts placements and changes, (neuro)infections, rehabilitation, families breakdown, etc.