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Background: Systemic sclerosis (Ssc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by graduate cutaneous and tissue fibrosis development and irreversible fibroproliferative vascular changes. The aim of the current systematic review was to update the list of proteomic candidate biomarkers identified from Ssc samples with mass spectrometry techniques.

Methods: Medline and Scopus databases were searched on 1st September 2020. Relevant articles were searched from March 2014 until September 2020. Two independent reviewers evaluated the retrieved articles.

Results: From a total of 97 articles, 9 articles were included in the final analysis summarizing 539 candidate proteomic biomarkers from various samples from Ssc patients (a larger number compared to the previous systematic review). Most biomarkers were identified from cutaneous biopsies. Only 5 articles included a validation step of the findings with only 13 biomarkers being validated.

Conclusions: Although many candidate biomarkers were additionally identified, independent validation studies are needed in order to evaluate the importance of these biomarkers for Ssc patients.


Background: Renal transplant recipients are at increased risk for developing complications of vaccine-preventable diseases. They benefit from a comprehensive pre-transplant evaluation when they might safely receive live vaccines. The primary aim of our study was to investigate the number of renal transplant recipients who were evaluated for serologic status against measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), and varicella. Secondarily, we investigated if pre-transplant Infectious Diseases consultation (IDC) improved vaccination rates.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 282 kidney-alone and kidney-plus adult transplant recipients who were born in or after 1957. Patients were evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Florida Transplant Center between January 2015 and December 2017. Serologic status evaluation and vaccination rates were compared in two groups created based on IDC and no ID consultation (NIDC).

Results: 235 (83%) of a total 282 patients received an IDC pre-transplantation. Varicella IgG levels were screened in all 235 IDC candidates. Among the IDC patients, mumps, measles and rubella IgG serologies were performed in 7 (3%), 143 (61%) and 144 (61%), respectively. Among 44 patients seronegative for any of MMR, 24 (55%) were vaccinated. Ten (66%) of 15 varicella seronegative patients were vaccinated. Zostavax was not given to 18% of IDC patients. Zostavax and MMR were administered more frequently in the IDC group compared to NIDC (p<.001 and p=0.0016, respectively).

Conclusion: Although the majority of patients had IDC, the screening rate for MMR serologies was lower than varicella. A protocol-driven serologic screening similar to the one for VZV is required for MMR. Pre-transplant IDC increases vaccination rates.


Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of glass ceramic inlay system using 2 antibacterial adhesive luting protocols with 2 cementation techniques to bur-cut dentin.

Material and Methods: Class I inlay cavities with 6-degree occlusal divergence and size of 6-, 3- and 2-mm in length, width and depth, were prepared on extracted human molars, randomly assigned to 2 main groups; each to 1 cementation technique, with or without immediate-dentin-bonding (IDB or NIDB) further divided into 3 subgroups; 2 to 2 antibacterial luting protocols, traditional (T) and experimental (E); and 1 to a control (C) group. In group IDBT, IDB-E and IDB-C dentin bonding was applied immediately after cavity preparation. In group NIDB-T, NIDB-E and NIDB-C dentin bonding was applied just before cementation of the restorations. The cavities in IDB-T and NIDB-T were treated with 2% chlorhexidine-digluconate (CHX) prior to dentin bonding application. The cavities in IDB-E and NIDB-E were treated only with dentin bonding system containing MDPB (12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide) active monomer featuring antibacterial effect. IDB-C and NIDB-C served as control. Dual-cure adhesive resin cement was used for the cementation of lithium disilicate-based ceramic inlay restorations. Fourteen test specimens per group were prepared for microtensile testing and consecutively subjected to tensile load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The mode of failure was observed under SEM and evaluated for each group. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to investigate the statistical difference between groups (α=0.05).

Results: The microtensile load was 5.96 MPa (median: 5.99 MPa) for IDB-T, 7.23 MPa (median: 7.55 MPa) for IDB-E, 6.68 MPa (median: 6.56 MPa) for IDB-C, 7.24 MPa (median: 7.20 MPa) for NIDB-T, 6.98 MPa (median: 6.30 MPa) for NIDB-E, and 7.02 MPa (median: 6.99 MPa) for NIDB-C, with no statistical difference between the groups (p>0.05). SEM monitoring for mode of failure revealed either cohesive (within resin cement) or adhesive-cohesive (mostly within resin cement along with partially involved areas between resin cement and ceramic restoration) character.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of the current study, none of the tested antibacterial luting protocols with either cementation technique was found to be superior in terms of bond strength.


Background/Aim: Panoramic radiographs have been used widely for pre-implant evaluation and the preparation of treatment protocols. Panoramic radiography is often the first choice method for the implant placements because it gives information on the overall shape of the jaws, the position of the maxillary sinus floor and the nasal cavity floor, and vertical position of the mandibular canal and the mental foramen in relation to dental implants. The specific aim of the present study was to evaluate 10-year survival rate of dental implants by analysis of dental panoramic radiographs.

Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 507 panoramic radiographs of 156 implant patients. Initial oral health status, proceedings of Restorative/Endodontic treatments before implant placement, missing number of teeth and edentulism types, finalization of implant related prosthetic treatments during controls, implant quality scorings at baseline/ controls and implant fails were analyzed.

Results: The study results reveal statistically significant difference between the performed R/E treatment rates, according to the need for R/E treatments (p= 0.008). During the initial radiograph 96.1% of the implants were successful and 3.9% had satisfactory survival. At last control 86% of the implants were successful, 10.3% had satisfactory survival, 1% had impairment in survival and 2.8% were unsuccessful. The change in the last control compared to the initial radiograph is statistically significant (p= 0.000) regarding satisfactory survival.

Conclusion: Long-term implant survival is not significantly affected by gender, age, type of edentulism, the presence of periodontal disease, R/E treatment needs, implant location, prosthesis type, and the presence of multiple implants.


Background/Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of a canalis sinuosus (CS) in the anterior maxilla.

Material and Methods: CBCT images of 673 patients (322 females and 351 males) were examined retrospectively with regard to age, gender, location of CS and relation to impacted canines. The age of the patients ranged from 14 to 82 years; the mean age of the female patients was 43.54 years and that of the males was 45.75 years. IBM SPSS 22 for Windows was used for statistical analysis of the results. Statistical comparisons between two categorical variables were conducted using chi-square tests. Significance was set at (p< 0.05).

Results: It was observed that 8.17% of the patients in this study exhibited accessory canals (AC) of CS (n= 55). There was no significant difference in CS prevalence between ages, age groups, and location in our study (p> 0.5). There was significant difference in CS prevalence between the genders (p< 0.5). Conclusions: It is important to take into consideration the presence of AC of the CS during surgical procedures in the anterior maxilla. It was also found that CBCT is more helpful than other techniques in detecting accessory canals in the region of interest.


Background/Aim: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) was first introduced in 2003 and its scope was expanded by the name medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ), since 2014. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy (FDT) on tissue samples by histopathological and histomorphometric examination and serum TRACP-5b (Tartrateresistant acid phosphatase-5b) measurement in rats.

Material and Methods: 24 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 3 groups comprising 8 animals. Zoledronic acid was administered to groups 1 and 2 and 0.9% sodium chloride was administered to group 3 intraperitoneally. After the injections were completed, dental extractions were performed. Photodynamic therapy was applied to group 2, three times a weekfor the two weeks after the extraction. In the 16th week, sacrification was performed. Rats were undergone histopathologic and histomorphometric evaluations.

Results: Photodynamic therapy has led to a decrease in epithelial opening and inflammation and an increase in the formation of new bone. Serum TRACP-5b values were shown to decrease significantly in the presence of osteonecrosis.

Conclusions: PDT was shown to be useful in reducing MRONJ risk in rats. As a serum biomarker, Serum TRACP-5b could be a valuable marker. Additional studies should confirm the findings.


A case is described of a 29-year-old female who presented with acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to acute eosinophilic pneumonia, associated with the use of electronic cigarettes to vape tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), together with the contemporary clinical understanding of the syndrome of electronic-cigarette associated lung injury (EVALI). Attention is drawn to acute eosinophilic pneumonia as a potential consequence of vaping-associated lung injury to understand the diagnostic evaluations and therapeutic interventions for acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with vaping THC.


The novel coronavirus disease, 2019 (COVID – 19) evolved as an unprecedented pandemic. The severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been associated with significantly deranged coagulation parameters and increased incidence of thrombotic events. Deranged coagulation parameters, such as D-dimers and fibrin degradation products, can indicate a poor prognosis, and their measurement will help stratify the patients according to the disease severity, need of intensive care unit admission, and prediction of the clinical course. Gaps in understanding the natural history of the disease cause difficulties in tailoring therapies and optimizing the management of patients. Lack of specific treatment further complicates this situation. While thrombotic events can cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients, a focused approach to the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) can, to a great extent, decrease the disease burden caused by thrombotic diseases. Pharmacological prophylactic anticoagulants and mechanical therapies such as pneumatic compression devices can help prevent venous thromboembolism and other thrombotic events. Thrombotic events due to COVID-19, their prevention and management, are the focus of this paper, with the prospect of providing insights into this relatively unexplored area.



A rare variant Miller Fisher Syndrome overlap with Guillain Barre Syndrome is described in an adult patient with SARS-COV-2 infection.

Case Presentation

The clinical course of a 45-year-old immunosuppressed man is summarized as a patient who developed ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and areflexia after upper respiratory infection symptoms began. A nasopharyngeal swab was positive for COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction. He progressed to acute hypoxemic and hypercapnic respiratory failure requiring intubation and rapidly developed tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine was consistent with Guillain Barre Syndrome. However, the clinical symptoms, along with positive anti-GQ1B antibodies, were consistent with Miller Fisher Syndrome and Guillain Barre Syndrome overlap. The patient required tracheostomy and had limited improvement in his significant neurological symptoms after several months.


The case demonstrates the severe neurological implications, prolonged recovery and implications in the concomitant respiratory failure of COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms on the spectrum of disorders of Guillain Barre Syndrome.



In acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) explosive proliferation and accumulation of immature myeloid cell clones take place, replacing the bone marrow, with the possibility of the formation of extramedullary tumour masses composed of myeloid cells. The onset of the disease less frequently consists of symptoms of extramedullary manifestation.

Case presentation

A Caucasian male child aged three years and 11 months was hospitalized for bilateral exophthalmos and otorrhea, due to an alteration in his general condition. Ocular ultrasound revealed an inhomogeneous thickening of the upper right muscles superior to the eyeball. A complete blood count showed severe anaemia, leucocytosis with neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. A peripheral blood smear evidenced myeloblasts. The result of the cytology of bone marrow confirmed the diagnosis of AML. Following blood product replacements and cytostatic treatment (AML-BFM 2004 HR protocol), the remission of exophthalmos and the correction of haematological parameters were favourable.


In a child with a sudden onset of exophthalmia and altered general condition, the diagnosis of acute leukaemia should be considered. The importance of performing a peripheral blood smear and bone marrow examination is emphasized so that diagnosis and initiation of treatment are not delayed.