The present study was aimed to evaluate hematological and oxidative stress parameters in domestic dogs infested naturally (n=10) by Rhipicephalus sp. to compare with non-infested dogs (n=10). All blood samples were collected from brachial vein into tubes EDTA for the hematological analysis such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hemoglobin (HGB) and platelets (PLT). Serum was rapidly separated after centrifugation and stored at -20 °C until it was used for malondialdehyde (MDA) and 2,2’-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) inhibition measurements. HGB in non-infested dogs was significantly higher than in infested dogs (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in RBCs, WBCs and PLT between both groups (P>0.05). The mean of MDA concentration was high in infested dogs (0.92±0.62 nmol/ml) compared to non-infested dogs (0.75±0.25 nmol/ml). On the other hand, the percentage of ABTS inhibition was similar in both groups (P=0.71). High tick number seems significantly affected WBCs (P<0.0001) and HGB (P<0.001) in infested dogs. Concerning oxidative status, there was no significant differences (P>0.05) between low and high infested dogs, neither in the amount of MDA nor in the ABTS inhibition. In conclusion, infested dogs induced RBCs alterations, which coincided with the oxidative damage, as evidenced by MDA serum levels. Also, there was a relationship between the tick number in infested dogs and the hematological parameters.
Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome (AMS) is a rare congenital disorder. To our knowledge, only 20 cases have been reported to date, and all in patients from Western countries. We report a case of AMS in a Thai patient, who presented at age 3 months with severe ectropion of both upper and lower eyelids, alopecia totalis, no palpable clitoris, and hypoplasia of both labia minora and labia majora. Trio whole exome sequencing analysis was performed, which revealed a heterozygous missense c.223G>A (p.Glu75Lys) variation in TWIST2. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of AMS in a patient from Thailand and the first reported case of AMS in Asia.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) sequence variants in patients from Myanmar have not yet been reported.
To describe the molecular epidemiology of EGFR variants in patients from Myanmar with lung adenocarcinoma.
Histological diagnosis and categorization of biopsies collected from 66 patients (28–78 years) with lung cancer was conducted using a panel of antibodies including those to: TTF1, P40, synaptophysin, CK7, and napsin-A. Samples from patients with confirmed adenocarcinoma were tested for EGFR variants using a cobas EGFR Mutation Test kit and cobas z 480 System (Roche). We conducted a univariate analysis of categorical factors using a χ2 or Fisher exact test.
Histological types were adenocarcinoma (61%, 40/66), squamous cell carcinoma (24%, 16/66), neuroendocrine carcinoma (9%, 6/66), undifferentiated carcinoma (2%, 1/66), adenosquamous carcinoma (2%, 1/66), small cell anaplastic carcinoma (2%, 1/66), and pleomorphic sarcoma (2%, 1/66). EGFR variants were detected in 15 of 40 (38%) cases of adenocarcinoma. Among them, 6 patients (40%) had an exon 19 deletion, another 6 (40%) had exon 21 substitutions, 1 (7%) had exon 20 insertion S768I, and 2 (13%) had compound variations (1 of exon 21 L858R and exon 18 G719X, and 1 of exon 20 S768I and exon 18 G719X). Although limited by small sample size, no significant association was found between the variants and factors including family cancer history, age group, sex, ethnicity, or occupation. However, there was a strong significant association between never-smokers and EGFR variants (P = 0.008).
Knowledge of EGFR variants in patients from Myanmar is encouraging for their effective cancer treatment.
Nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a sophisticated transcription factor that is particularly important in the inflammatory response, but it regulates more than 400 individual and dependent genes for parts of the apoptotic, angiogenic, and proliferative, differentiative, and cell adhesion pathways. NF-κB function is directly inhibited by the binding of inhibitor of κB (IκB), and the imbalance between NF-κB and IκB has been linked to the development and progression of cancer and a variety of inflammatory disorders. These observations might broaden the horizon of current knowledge, particularly on the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases considering the roles of NF-κB and IκB. In this context, we focus this narrative review on a comparative discussion of our findings with other literature regarding variations of NFKB1 and NFKB1A and their association with susceptibility to widespread inflammatory disorders (such as atherosclerosis, morbid obesity, Behçet syndrome, Graves disease, Hashimoto disease) and common cancers (such as gliomas).
In patients with phenylketonuria, the central nervous system is adversely affected by noncompliance with diet. The levels of phenylalanine and many different amino acids (AAs) in the plasma of patients with phenylketonuria can be measured simultaneously.
To measure the blood plasma levels of neurotransmitter AAs in a cohort of patients in Sanliurfa province, Turkey, with phenylketonuria for use as a support parameter for the follow-up of patients.
The phenylketonurics that we followed (n = 100) were divided into 2 groups according to their compliance with their dietary treatment. Plasma AA analysis results of phenylketonurics were compared with those of healthy children in a control group (n = 50).
In the diet incompliant group (n = 56), the mean levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA; 0.96 ± 1.07 μmol/L) and glycine (305.1 ± 105.19 μmol/L) were significantly higher than those in the diet compliant group (n = 44; GABA P = 0.005, glycine P < 0.001) and in the control group (GABA and glycine P < 0.001), whereas the mean levels of glutamic acid (39.01 ± 22.94 μmol/L) and asparagine (39.3 ± 16.89 μmol/L) were lower (P < 0.001) in the diet incompliant group. A positive correlation was observed between the levels of phenylalanine and GABA and glycine. A negative relationship was found between the levels of phenylalanine and glutamic acid and asparagine.
A relationship exists between the levels of plasma phenylalanine in a cohort of phenylketonurics in Sanliurfa province, Turkey, and the levels of some excitatory and inhibitory AAs. Excitatory and inhibitory AA levels in plasma may be used as support parameters in the follow-up of patients with phenylketonuria.
Neonatal jaundice and elevated levels of liver enzymes are found in infants with breast milk jaundice (BMJ).
To determine the prevalence and duration of elevated serum levels of liver enzymes in Thai infants with BMJ.
We conducted a prospective study of Thai infants with BMJ, excluding those with pathological causes of jaundice. We measured the serum levels of total bilirubin (TB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT); followed infants with elevated levels; and estimated the time for levels to become normal using Kaplan–Meier analysis.
We included 42 infants (median age: 17.5 days) with BMJ, and elevated serum levels of at least 1 enzyme were found in 27 (64%) infants. We excluded 4 (10%) infants because they did not continue to be exclusively breastfed, 17 (40%) were lost to follow-up, and 21 (50%) completed the study. We found that 19 (45%) of the 42 infants had elevated GGT, 11 (26%) had elevated ALT, and 9 (21%) each had elevated AST and ALP levels. The median time for enzyme levels to normalize was 291 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 109.8 to 472.2) for ALT, 240 days (95% CI, 139.0 to 340.9) for AST, 184 days (95% CI, 4.4 to 363.6) for ALP, 120 days (95% CI, 74.6 to 164.5) for TB, and 63 days (95% CI, 61.44 to 64.6) for GGT. Infants were otherwise healthy during the follow-up.
The prevalence of elevated serum levels of liver enzymes in Thai infants was unexpectedly high, but the levels became normal spontaneously despite continued breastfeeding, which endorses a “watchful waiting” strategy in managing asymptomatic infants with BMJ.
A growing body of evidence supports the recommendation of both physiotherapy and physical activity in people with haemophilia. Physical benefits include increasing strength and flexibility and reducing the risks of osteoporosis, arthropathy, and intramuscular and joint bleeds; social benefits have also been observed. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that people with haemophilia may still be averse to engaging with physical activity due to fears of causing bleeding, joint pain and joint damage.
Qualitative interviews were conducted with young men with haemophilia treated at comprehensive care centres in London, to explore and identify the reasons behind risk-averse behaviours towards exercise and physical activity. The interview questions were designed to prompt discussion and capture opinions relating to participants’ physical activity and gym membership/use, and the degree to which their haemophilia impacts on both.
Ten participants were interviewed. Preferred activities were variable, with five participants describing themselves as very physically active, three moderately active, and two reporting little physical activity; four described themselves as ‘not gym-confident’. Seven participants described themselves as highly or moderately motivated to undertake physical activity, with motivations including weight loss and getting fit for summer holidays. However, there was some anxiety around weight-bearing exercise due to the fear of pain or injury. All participants had been exposed to personal trainers (PTs) and recognised the importance of being properly introduced to training equipment but felt that PTs were too expensive for them. The majority of participants reported sports-related injuries and self-perceived limitations on activity due to their personal/individual experience of living with haemophlia. Physiotherapists were often the first point of contact for advice and support on safe physical activity. All participants recognised the benefits of physical activity and had been encouraged in this by their physiotherapists.
Young men with haemophilia are keen to use the gym as part of their personal fitness regimens. The ongoing safety concerns of health care professionals warrants further research.
Adherence to treatment recommendations in patients with chronic disease is complex and is influenced by numerous factors. Haemophilia is a chronic disease with reported levels of adherence ranging from 17–82%.
Based on the theoretical foundation of the World Health Organization Multidimensional Adherence Model, the objective of this study was to identify the best combination of the variables infusion frequency, annualised bleed rate, age, distance to haemophilia treatment centre (HTC) and Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS), to predict adherence to treatment recommendations in patients with haemophilia A and B on home infusion prophylaxis in Canada.
A one-year retrospective cohort study investigated adherence to treatment recommendations using two measures: 1) subjective report via home infusion diaries, and 2) objective report of inventory ordered from Canadian Blood Services. Stepwise regression was performed for both measures.
Eighty-seven patients with haemophilia A and B, median age 21 years, were included. Adherence for both measures was 81% and 93% respectively. The sample consisted largely of patients performing an infusion frequency of every other day (34%). Median scores on the HJHS was 10.5; annualised bleed rate was two. Distance to the HTC was 51km. Analysis of the objective measure weakly supported greater infusion frequency as a treatment-related factor for the prediction of lower adherence, however the strength of this relationship was not clinically relevant (R2=0.048). For the subjective measure, none of the explanatory variables were significant.
Adherence is a multifaceted construct. Despite the use of theory, most of the variance in adherence to treatment recommendations in this sample of patients with haemophilia remains unknown. Further research on other potential predictors of adherence, and possible variables and relationships within factors of the MAM is required.
There is a lot of scandals and even food poisoning caused by consuming poor-quality meat in Russian Federation (RF). This is especially true for ready-toeat meat products (e.g., sausages, smoked meats, dumplings, meat pies), as the buyers do not see what they are made of. The fact is that in the USSR they had a well-developed system of state verification and standardization of all food products. The state standards (GOSTs) issued for each food product had the power of law. Violations of GOST requirements were regarded as crimes. However, the RF Law “On Standardization” has factually lost its power in connection with the adoption (2002) of the Federal Law “On Technical Regulating”. Therefore, new GOSTs have not previous power and are removed from the jurisdiction of the RF government. The fuzzy “technical specifications” (TUs) in contrast with previous severe GOSTs for food do not provide products quality control but are only indicators of biological, chemical and radiation safety. Using GOST labelling on food items seems as a marketing gimmick today. Nevertheless, recently there have been reports of the development of digital quality control and related legislation. Research findings presented herein show significant growth of Halal meat market. Increased customer confidence in Halal products is also found among non-Muslim buyers. The Council of Muftis of RF, together with the presidential administration of RF, has initiated the development of the state document “Requirements for producing, manufacturing, processing, storage and sale of Halal products”. Halal labelling was developed and approved and Halal stores opened. Our brief customer survey has showed the results of customer confidence in the Halal meat and meat product market could be found across the entire range of Halal food items. Taking into account global trends, the Halal food market in Russia as well as Halal industry as a whole have great prospects (exporting Halal items included) and this phenomenon demands a future extended research.