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Abstract

Introduction. The use of pharmaceutical products is a very complex part of healthcare, where a variety of healthcare professionals collaborate. Unfortunately, the role of all professional groups does not seem to be entirely clear despite of the high regulation. Evidence suggests that the role of nurses can be much wider than expected and specified by the related policies.

Aim. The aim of the study was to explore nurses’, physicians’ and pharmacists’ perspectives of nurses’ practices related to pharmaceutical care (PC) in the Czech Republic.

Methods. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted. Qualified nurses (629), physicians (69) and pharmacists (39) were questioned about their views on the nurses’ involvement in various advanced activities related to PC.

Results. Participation on the advanced activities related to PC during the last month was high (providing information and patient education 80%; monitoring medication adherence 72%; monitoring medication effects 56% and participation on prescribing medication 19%). Nurses were most likely to see the investigated PC aspects as part of their nursing tasks when compared to the physicians’ or pharmacists’ point of view. However, a substantial part of participants believed in the positive impact of nurses’ involvement in activities related to PC. On the other side, interprofessional collaboration remains unsatisfactory and communication within an interprofessional team was rated as being very poor.

Conclusions. The need to increase the nurses’ involvement in PC exists. Optimising formal nurses’ competencies, revising the skills mix in different types of workplaces and revising the nursing curricula, as well as improving the interprofessional collaboration, could result in a positive effect on patient outcomes.

Abstract

Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the need for updating nurses’ knowledge and skills in the field of diabetes care recommendations.

Material and methods. The study included 580 nurses who were master’s degree students. A knowledge test including 20 questions on 10 procedures mentioned in the recommendations was used to collect research data. A total of 93.3% of students in the study group were professionally active.

Results. A total of 11.9% of respondents had access to diabetes care recommendations. The largest knowledge deficits were found for: leaving an ‘old’ cannula for continuous insulin infusion using an insulin pump for 2-3 hours in place to allow for absorption of the accumulated insulin after inserting a new one; the time it takes to calibrate a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system by measuring capillary blood glucose after insertion of a CGM electrode; and indications for alternate site testing. Poor, fair, and good level of knowledge on recommendations was found in 12.8%, 84.3%, and 2.9% of respondents, respectively.

Conclusions. 1) The level of knowledge of studying nurses on diabetic care recommendations is unsatisfactory. 2) Specialised nurses, as well as those participating in in-house training courses on diabetes and those declaring the accessibility of recommendations at workplace show a higher level of knowledge. 3) In the light of the development of new medical technologies, periodic workshops focusing on practical skills should be organised for nurses in their workplace, enabling the use of equipment for insulin administration and glucose monitoring.

Abstract

Aim. Identifying the scope of implementation of the ICNP® dictionary in the process of educating nursing students at the universities of the Pomeranian Voivodeship.

Material and methods. The research was carried out at the turn of 2018 and 2019 among 110 first- and second-cycle students of nursing at three Pomeranian universities. The diagnostic survey method and the survey technique were used. The tool was an original on-line questionnaire. The statistical analysis used IBM SPSS 23 statistical package; p ≤ 0.05 was adopted as the materiality level.

Results. During the first-cycle studies, the students the most often used the ICNP® Classification (n=103; 93.6%). More than a half of them also used the classification of NANDA (n=58; 52.7%). ICNP® is the most often used on the basics of nursing (n=105; 95.5%). Regarding the second-cycle studies, students mainly applied the ICNP® (n=49; 44.5%) and NANDA (n=23; 20.9%) classifications, however, 13.6% (n=15) of the respondents did not use any nursing dictionary during the classes. Students also used ICNP® reference terminology in self-study papers (n=52; 47.3%) and diploma theses (n=20; 18.2%).

Conclusions. The most frequently used classification in the first- and second-cycle studies at the universities of the Pomeranian Voivodeship is the ICNP® dictionary.

Abstract

Introduction. The number of children and adolescents hospitalized due to suicide attempts caused by stress, low self-esteem, lack of acceptance and peer violence, as well as family problems, increases every year. In addition, there may occur disturbed self-perception or depression. This is a very complex phenomenon, the scale of which should induce immediate multidimensional activities.

Aim. Analysis of the occurrence of suicide attempts among minors on the example of the city of Lublin.

Material and methods. The statistical data obtained from the Polish Police Headquarter and from the report of the Foundation We Give Children Strength – “Children count 2017” was analyzed and a review of the literature on the subject for the years 2014-2018 developed using the descriptive method was made.

Results. The report of the Foundation We Give Children Strength shows a huge scale of the phenomenon. According to its data, as many as 72% of children aged 11-17 have experienced at least one form of abuse in their lives, 7% of respondents have attempted suicide, and 16% of teenagers have mutilated themselves. The statistics conducted in Poland in 2017-2018 recorded: in 2017 the number of 116, and in 2018 – 97 suicide attempts ended in death. There were 5 deaths in 2017 and 9 in 2018 in Lubelskie Voivodeship, what shows an increase by 80% in 12 months. In the 7-12 age group in 2017, only one suicide attempt ended up in death was reported, in 2018 the number increased to 5 – none of them concerned the Lublin Province.

Conclusions. Suicide attempts ending up in death in 2018 accounted for 2.30% of suicide attempts undertaken in Lublin, while in Poland they constituted 1.87%. The main reasons for suicide attempts among minors are: the lack of acceptance, low self-esteem and peer violence, both physical and mental. Mass media have an influence on juvenile suicides. Belief in “multiple lives” perpetuated by computer games and films can have an impact on suicide attempts.

Abstract

Background

Brucellosis is an infectious zoonosis, which greatly afflicts human health and animal productivity.

Objectives

To describe the trends and epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in Nahavand county, Hamadan Province, western Iran over 8 years (2010–2017).

Methods

In this registry-based longitudinal study, we analyzed all reported cases of human brucellosis, including 1,130 patients from 2010 to 2017. A checklist including demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with reported cases of brucellosis had been used to gather data. We calculated annual percent changes (APCs) and average annual percent changes (AAPCs) using Joinpoint software to determine the trend of brucellosis using a segmented regression model.

Results

Among the patients, 60.9% were male and 87.3% lived in rural areas. The mean age of the patients was 35.9 ± 18.34 years. Compared with male patients, female patients were more affected when they were elderly (15.6% men vs. 24.2% women for those aged ≥55 years) (P = 0.001). Of patients with brucellosis, 65.2% had consumed unpasteurized dairy products and 82.3% had a history of contact with animals. The incidence of human brucellosis in Nahavand county increased between 2010 and 2014, then decreased in 2015, and thereafter remained steady. Per 100,000 population, the AAPC pertaining to the incidence was 17.4 in the male population (95% CI: 4.4, 31.9), 13.8 in the female population (95% CI: 0.2, 29.3), and 16.1 in rural dwellers (95% CI: 2.2, 31.8) indicating an increasing trend from 2010 to 2017 (P < 0.05).

Conclusion

The incidence of brucellosis in the western part of Iran is high and remains a challenging health problem. In the present study, age, job, sex, and seasonal changes are important risk factors for human brucellosis.

Abstract

Nigella sativa (commonly known as black seed or black cumin), from the family Ranunculaceae, is a plant that grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. This narrative review discusses the toxicological profile reported by short- to long-term studies that examined different extracts and oils of N. sativa seeds. Scientific databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched using appropriate keywords. LD50 for administered N. sativa seed fixed oil varied from 28.8 mL/kg to 3,371 mg/kg in mice, while 21 g/kg of aqueous, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. sativa did not lead to any mortality. Subacute toxicity evaluations indicated that aqueous, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. sativa at doses as high as 6 g/kg do not produce toxicity. Investigation of chronic toxicity found that 2 mL/kg of N. sativa fixed oil is slightly toxic. Cytotoxicity studies indicated that N. sativa chloroform and petroleum ether extracts are more cytotoxic than its other extracts. Although studies that assessed N. sativa toxicity generally introduced it as a safe medicinal herb, to draw a more definitive conclusion on its safety, more detailed studies must be conducted.

Abstract

The rapid global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although COVID-19 is a class B infectious disease, the prevention and control measures used for it in China are commonly used for class A infectious diseases. In the process of the spread of the disease, hospitals will be a key point to influence this pandemic. To prevent and control nosocomial infection of SARS-CoV-2, methods and measures were formulated from the relevant laws and regulations of the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, practical experience of the pandemic, and evidence-based medicine in the hospitals fighting this disease. Thus, this report may provide useful recommendations for the prevention and control of COVID-19 in hospitals and clinics.

Abstract

Background

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential to produce reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, which is required to protect cells against oxidative stress. G6PD deficiency is a genetic variation that may lead to hemolysis with potential consequences, such as kidney failure, and patients often experience low quality of life.

Objectives

To establish a simple, efficient, and optimized method to produce a G6PDViangchan variant and characterize the phenotypes of recombinant human wild-type G6PD and G6PDViangchan.

Methods

G6PD was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from a human cDNA plasmid, and the gene for G6PDViangchan was amplified by initiating a mutation at location 871 (G>A) through site-directed mutagenesis. Protein expression and western blotting were conducted after successful cloning. The enzymatic activity of both proteins was assessed spectrophotometrically after purification.

Results

Both amplicons were successfully cloned into a pET26b(+) expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells for overexpression as C-terminally histidine-tagged recombinant proteins. Western blotting confirmed that both proteins were successfully produced at similar levels. The enzymes were purified by immobilized metal (Co) affinity chromatography. Postpurification assay of enzyme activity revealed about 2-fold differences in the levels of specific activity between the wild-type G6PD (155.88 U/mg) and G6PDViangchan (81.85 U/mg), which is consistent with earlier reports. Analysis in silico showed that the coding change in G6PDViangchan has a substantial effect on protein folding structure.

Conclusions

We successfully cloned, expressed, and purified both wild-type G6PD and G6PDViangchan proteins. Such a protocol may be useful for creating a model system to study G6PD deficiency disease.

Abstract

Background

A Thai-version of the Migraine Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MSQ 2.1) is available, but a qualified questionnaire used specifically for disability assessment was not available. The most relevant practical disability assessment tested during this study was the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) Questionnaire.

Objectives

To test the concurrent validity, test–retest reliability, and internal consistency of a Thai-version MIDAS questionnaire, and factors to predict disability in people with migraine.

Methods

We conducted the present prospective study at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Bangkok. The original English MIDAS Questionnaire was translated into Thai with back-translation into English and the language equivalence was assessed. The Thai-version MIDAS Questionnaire was tested for concurrent validity, test–retest reliability, and internal consistency, and factors including duration of migraine history, migraine characteristics, and comorbidity were assessed for the ability to predict migraine-related disability of migraineurs.

Results

Of the 58 participants, 31 were eligible to be included. The validity of the Thai-version questionnaire between the MIDAS total score and the mean headache severity (question B), the mean pain duration per attack, and the mean pain numerical rating scale (NRS) score were moderately correlated with a Spearman correlation coefficient range 0.42–0.58. The test–retest reliability of MIDAS grade had a weighted κ of 0.66, and for individual questions of the MIDAS total score, questions A and B assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients ranged 0.89–0.98. The internal consistency had a Cronbach α of 0.98. The mean pain NRS score in the past 3 months was an independent predictive factor for migraine-related disability.

Conclusion

The Thai-version MIDAS Questionnaire has moderate concurrent validity, acceptable internal consistency, and excellent test–retest reliability. It would be helpful to assess clinical outcomes. Future study with a standardized translation process for the Thai-version questionnaire and a larger sample size is warranted to confirm internal consistency and determine all probable predictive factors for migraine-related disability.