Diarrhea caused by multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an important and common problem in companion animals, especially dogs. Moreover, these dogs may serve as a reservoir of pathogenic strains of E. coli that may cause enteric and extra-intestinal infections in humans and other animals. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of E. coli isolates from diarrheic dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. In fecal samples of 200 dogs with diarrhea, 147 E. coli strains (73.5%) were isolated and characterized by the standard bacteriological techniques (culture, biochemical tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing). Out of the 147 positive isolates, 45, 50, and 52 were from Elkanemi Park, Magaram, and Sabon gari wards respectively. The isolates show 100% resistance to chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, and ceftriaxone, 96.6% to amoxicillin, and 95.9% to gentamicin, while all (100%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. All the isolates showed multiple antimicrobial resistance. The result of the current study showed that dogs in Maiduguri are important reservoirs of multidrug-resistant E. coli. Therefore, it is important to adopt and apply guidelines for the correct use of antimicrobials in small animal practice to reduce the emergence of multidrug resistance among E. coli in companion animals.
Under the Under the project Support for Environmental Assessment and Management (SEAM), This project is being implemented by Reduction of Milk Losses at Miser Company for Dairy and Food, Mansoura, Egypt. It was implemented under the National Industrial Pollution Prevention Programmers (NIPPP). NIPPP focuses on the introduction and promotion of low-cost improvement measures, which can be easily and quickly implemented by factories. It also emphasizes the importance of economic benefits of any such intervention, particularly those with short pay-back periods. A summary of how these improvements were identified and the underlying problems solved, follows. Waste minimization through improved quality control procedures was implemented at Edfina Company for Preserved Foods, Alexandria, Egypt. A number of interventions costing LE 65,200 (Egyptian Pound) have yielded annual savings of LE 382,622. Quality control training and the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system will lead to improved product quality and further savings. Although it is difficult to quantify at this stage further savings of LE 550,000 could be expected in the short term.
Bovine rotavirus A (BRVA) is a frequent causative agent of diarrhea in neonatal calves. Accurate and rapid diagnosis is crucial to prevent calf mortality from BRVA induced diarrhea. Currently, variety of diagnostic methods are being used to detect BRVA from calves’ feces: antibody-based rapid test and ELISA, and molecular-based RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the rapid test (Immunochromatography), ELISA, and RT-PCR assays, using RT-qPCR as the gold standard, in detection of BRVA in diarrheic calves’ fecal samples. One hundred (n=100) clinically diarrheic fecal samples were tested with four different diagnostic tools. The percent of samples positive by rapid test, ELISA, RT-PCR and RT-qPCR was 10%, 16%, 17%, and 33%, respectively. The agreement between different assays was 75% to 99%. The highest agreement was observed between ELISA and RT-PCR assay (99%). The lowest agreement was recorded (75%) between rapid test and RT-qPCR. The sensitivity of the rapid test, ELISA, and RT-PCR were 30%, 49%, and 52%, respectively when compared to the reference test (RT-qPCR), whereas specificity was 100% for all assays. In conclusion, none of the frequently used diagnostic tests showed a satisfactory level of sensitivity to identify BRVA in calves’ feces. Therefore, the use of a more sensitive rapid test should be used to identify infected calves in field conditions in order to prevent calf mortality from rotaviral diarrhea.
The inherent properties of albumin facilitate its effective use as a raw material to prepare a nanosized drug delivery vehicles. Because of the enhanced surface area, biocompatibility, and extended half-life of albumin nanoparticles, a number of drugs have been incorporated in albumin matrices in recent years. Furthermore, its ability to be conjugated to various receptor ligands makes albumin an ideal candidate for the increased delivery of drugs to specific sites. The present review provides an in-depth discussion of production strategies for the preparation of albumin and conjugated albumin nanoparticles and for the targeting of these formulations to specific organs and cancer cells. This review also provides insights into drug loading, release patterns, and cytotoxicity of various drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles.
Unscrupulous food business operators may use recycled frying oil to save costs. Of particular concern is the recycled frying oil is usually taken from nonhalal food premises which should not be used by halal food premises, and indeed may posing health treats to consumers. Hence, the objective of this paper is to analyse pork adulteration in recycled frying oils by using the combination of Raman spectroscopy and Principal Co mponent Analysis (PCA). Samples of frying oils from homemade fried pork, fried chicken, fried fish and fried banana were analyzed. Spiked samples were prepared by adding frying oil from homemade fried pork ranging from 10% to 50% (v/v) to frying oils from homemade fried chicken, fried fish and fried banana. The results found that Raman spectroscopy and PCA are able to differentiate adulterated frying oil and unadulterated frying oils. However, it could not distinguis h the percentage of pork adulteration in the spiked samples. This method would beneficial to ensure food integrity in the frying oils.
The study has aimed to investigate and determine the anatomical position, shape, size, and histological features of the ductus venosus, and its role as a shunt in the fetal circulatory system in domestic ruminants. The research was conducted on 19 bovine, 11 sheep and 5 goat fetuses, aborted at the late stage of pregnancy or deceased just after delivery. The general anatomy of the ductus venosus was investigated by in-situ dissection of the corrosive cast obtained by injection of 25% solution of Vinylite mass through the umbilical vein. For histological examination, the fetal tissue samples were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson’s trichrome, Verhoeff-Van Gieson and Gomori's silver stain. The results showed that ruminant fetal ductus venosus is a curved, trumpet-shaped vessel, situated in the central part of the liver, above the porta hepatis. Its ventral part is constricted in the form of an isthmus, having a prominent lip-like thickening at the junction with the portal sinus. Histological examination showed the dominant presence of collagen and elastic fibers in its tunica media, with thin bands of smooth muscle fibers oriented in a longitudinal and circular direction indicating ability for vasoconstriction and vasodilatation.
The aim to the present study was to formulate of artificial litchi flavored drinks, to assess quality parameters like pH, acidity, TSS and sensory characteristics of three formulated artificial litchi flavored drinks were investigated under 28 days of storage at ambient (30±2°C) temperature. The pH values for all samples varied from 3.53 to 3.65 under the entire storage duration. The acidity found in three different samples ranged from 0.155 to 0.161% under storage condition. The TSS possess among the samples between 15.43 to 16.10° Brix. The sensory profile of three different formulation was evaluated in terms of color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability. The sensory parameters were followed the decreasing trend after end of the storage except sample 3. Although, initially sample 3 found in lowest sensory acceptance but retained the more stable score under the entire storage period which is significantly different (P≤0.05) from other samples. Considering pH, acidity, TSS values under entire storage condition the formulation of sample 3 had shown better results although with few exceptions there was no significant difference (P≤0.05) among the samples. However, end of the study we recommended that, the formulation of sample 3 had better among other sample 1 and sample 2 in terms of quality and cost.
The treatment of full-thickness skin burn using nanomaterials is promising as a medical application reducing the risk of infection and severe dermal scarring. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of nanomaterials, particularly 3% silver nanoparticles containing ointment (3% SNO), on the full-thickness skin burn of laboratory mice. A total number of 36 male mice were used, equally divided into three groups: negative control (not burned and not treated); positive control (+ve) (burned and treated with castor oil and white petroleum jelly); and SNO-treated group (burned and treated with 3% SNO). The skin of the animals’ back was shaved. A 2x0.5 cm metal plate was heated on a burner to burn the skin of the animals of positive control and SNO-treated groups. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial suspension was applied to the burnt area. The application of SNO, as well as the mixture of white petroleum jelly and castor oil, was started after 6 hours of inducing burns and continued for 14 days (three times daily) in the respected groups. The SNO-treated group showed accelerated healing within 14 days demonstrated by re-epithelialization of the epidermal layer and proliferation of the fibroblasts in the dermal layer. Less healing evidence was observed in the +ve control group in the same period. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study that uses a 3% SNO formula and has found that it has a promising impact on the treatment of infected skin burns.