The proper development of a child is linked with proper nutrition, including nutritional habits which are formed from childhood.
The aim of the study
The aim of the study was to establish a list of the most popular food products among children and to develop a register of potentially dangerous substances on a Facebook website.
Materials and methods
A website was created on Facebook. The participants provided lists of favorite dishes or products.
The study involved 264 participants. An inverse correlation was observed with reference to the age of the subjects and the occurrence of sugar syrup in their diet (R=-0.20; p<0.001), glucose-fructose (R= -0.18; p< 0.004), and glucose (R=-0.13; p< 0.039) syrups. The most common potential food allergens are: gluten (R=0.28; p<0.001), eggs (R=0.28; p<0.001), and wheat (R=0.25; p<0.001). The main substances added to food that are present in a child’s diet that increase proportionally with reference to the child’s age are: salicylates (R=0.37; p<0.001), iron and ammonium sulfates (R=0.21; p<0.001).
The choices of favorite products are related to age and sex. Products containing gluten, the consumption of which increases with age, carry a risk of undiagnosed celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity in people with a genetic predisposition. Facebook has fulfilled its role as an effective tool for gathering information about the food preferences of children and adolescents.
A vestibular fistula with a normal anus is a rare subtype of anorectal malformation seen more often in East Asia and India. Though mostly congenital, some authors have suggested acquired etiologies for this condition. Infants with retroviral infection have been reported to develop acquired rectovestibular fistulas. We report a case of an infant anovestibular fistula in a patient with retroviral infection.
There are limited data on factors that determine viral load (VL) in congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) might influence individual host response to infection. This study aimed to investigate the association between SNPs in genes encoding cytokines or cytokine receptors and VL in newborns with cCMV.
Material and methods
Eight polymorphisms (IL1B rs16944, IL12B rs3212227, IL28B rs12979860, CCL2 rs1024611, DC-SIGN rs735240, TLR2 rs5743708, TLR4 rs4986791 and TLR9 rs352140) were analyzed in study population of 233 newborns, including 92 cCMV-infected newborns (73 symptomatic and 19 asymptomatic) by TaqMan SNP Predesigned Genotyping Assays. The association analysis was performed using SNPStats software and STATISTICA10.
The association between IL12B polymorphism and viruria was observed (p = 0.029). In multiple comparison tests, heterozygous T/G genotype of IL12B was associated with higher viruria than T/T genotype (p = 0.041) in cCMV-infected newborns. In allele analysis, T allele of IL12B was associated with higher viremia (p = 0.037) in symptomatic newborns. We observed higher VL in symptomatic newborns in comparison to asymptomatic (median viremia: 1.7 × 104 copies/mL vs. 2.0 × 103 copies/mL (p = 0.002), median viruria: 1.0 × 107 copies/mL versus 6.9 × 105 copies/mL (p = 0.001), respectively).
IL12B rs3212227 was associated with VL in cCMV. Symptomatic newborns had significantly higher viremia and viruria. The role of SNPs in pathogenesis of cCMV warrants further investigations.
Type I intestinal atresias (webs) are rare causes of gastrointestinal obstruction in infants, the most common site being the second portion of the duodenum. According to the Louw and Barnard classification, type 1 atresia has been defined as an intra-luminal web which results in either complete (web with no perforation) or incomplete (web with central perforation) intestinal obstruction. The jejunum is a rare site of such webs. Diagnosis of an incompletely obstructing web due to central perforation is usually difficult and challenging. We present two cases of jejunal web with a central perforation in which the presentation was delayed. Both were managed by excision of the web.
To evaluate the periodontal status, mucogingival parameters and oral hygiene in growing patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate.
Material and methods
Assessment was performed in 15 patients aged 6 to 18 years with a bilateral cleft. Records included probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, keratinized gingiva, recession, vestibule depth, biotype, type of fraena, dental plaque and bleeding.
The mean scores of pocket depth were: 1.9 mm for central incisors, 1.6 mm for lateral incisors, 1.7 mm for canines, 2.0 mm for first premolars. There were only a few teeth with minimal attachment loss (1 mm). Gingival recessions were not recorded. High scores were recorded for the hygiene indicator, especially on the buccal, mesial and distal surfaces. Due to soft and hard tissue malformations, it was difficult to precisely assess the biotype and keratinized gingiva. However, keratinized gingiva was narrower near the teeth adjacent to the cleft. Similarly, the vestibule was shallower in this area. In 12 out of 15 children it was impossible to define the type of labial fraenum.
Evaluation of the periodontal status is important for successful comprehensive rehabilitation in cleft patients. Specific features of hard (alveolar process) and soft tissue (scars, unusual fraena) malformations caused by the cleft and previous surgical procedures have functional and morphological implications. Narrower gingiva and a shallower vestibule in the presence of dental plaque and bleeding are unfavourable conditions to maintain a healthy periodontium. It is essential to include periodontal assessment and preventive treatment to a comprehensive approach as early as possible.
According to epidemiological data, muscular dysfunctions of the masticatory system occur in 15-23% of the population. Preventive examinations of functional disorders of the stomatognathic system are, therefore, of particular importance. A distinct group of patients exposed to dysfunctions in the area of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus comprises those with genetic diseases characterised by disorders in collagen formation. One of such diseases is osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and dentinogenesis imperfecta that usually goes together with the former.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency with which particular disorders of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus occur within the group of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.
Material and methods
The study was performed on patients of the Orthopaedic Clinic of the Polish-American Paediatric Institute in Kraków. The mean age of the children was 7.9 years. In all the cases, a genetic diagnosis of OI has been confirmed. The research methods were based on an in-depth interview on family diseases, pregnancy, postnatal period, feeding, subjective assessment of dysfunctions in the stomatognathic system.
An examination of the deformations in the stomatognathic system and the skeleton was conducted, as well as an examination of the trauma and tone of the jaw.
The relationship between breastfeeding and swallowing and speech disorders was also evaluated. The impact of intubation on mandibular ranges was investigated.
The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis on the basis of which conclusions were drawn concerning disorders in the stomatognathic system which tend to occur in children with OI. The renunciation of breastfeeding significantly contributes to sucking and swallowing disorders, rumen disorders, as well as biomechanical disorders in the temporomandibular joint. A significant dependence between breastfeeding and swallowing problems was found, whereas there was no such dependence with respect to speech impediments.
The results of the research conducted led to the following conclusions: 1. Among pediatric patients with OI there are disorders in the stomatognathic system. The most common dysfunctions are: abdominal, swallowing and sucking disorders, abnormal muscle structure of the rumen and biomechanical disorders in the temporomandibular joints. Breastfeeding significantly contributes to swallowing disorders. 2. The therapeutic process involving children with OI requires the cooperation of specialists in orthopedics, pediatrics, physiotherapy, orthodontics and neurologopedics to carry out comprehensive diagnostics and treatment tailored to the individual needs of the patient. 3. In order to draw final conclusions, there is a need for more research by means of objective tools, such as EMG and a condensate recorder.
The study investigated the concentration of IgA, IgM and IgG in colostrum, transitional and mature milk and the effect of parity, age, BMI and family income on secreted immunoglobulin contents of human milk.
Sequential samples of colostrum, transitional and mature milk were collected from 38 women. Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay was used to analyse the immunoglobulin concentrations.
The study revealed that IgA was the dominant immunoglobulin and mean concentration in colostrum, transitional and mature milk was 5.92 ± 1.50 g/L, 3.85 ± 0.64 g/L and 3.72 ± 0.68 g/L, respectively. Both IgA and IgM levels of colostrum decreased significantly in both transitional (P = 0.000) and mature milk (P = 0.000), while the concentration of IgG rises significantly in them (colostrum vs. transitional milk, P = 0.000; and colostrum vs. mature milk P = 0.011). While maternal age, BMI and family income had no significant influence on the immunoglobulin levels at different stages of lactation, parity showed significant influence on IgG (P = 0.03) and IgM (P = 0.05) levels of transitional milk and IgA level of colostrum (P = 0.05).
The findings suggest that immunoglobulin composition in breast milk is strongly associated with stage of lactation and is likely to be more susceptible to parity than BMI and socioeconomic characteristics.
Jałowa leukocyturia stanowi istotny i trudny problem kliniczny u dzieci. W artykule omówiono najczęstsze nerkowe przyczyny jałowej leukocyturii o podłożu infekcyjnym i nieinfekcyjnym oraz przyczyny pozanerkowe. Podkreślono znaczenie prawidłowego pobrania moczu na badanie ogólne oraz wyeliminowania stanu zapalnego i nieprawidłowości okolicy cewki moczowej jako przyczyny jałowej leukocyturii u dzieci.
Pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) is one of the most common complications that results in the aftermath of treatment of congenital oesophageal atresia (EA). The aim of this study is to present a case of a 7-year-old girl with severe gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) operated on in the neonatal period due to EA with a lower tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TEF). The patient, despite the use of adequate conservative treatment, clinically and in the endoscopic examination was diagnosed with severe oesophagitis (LA-D in the Los Angeles classification). After a laparoscopic fundoplication by the Nissen method at the age of 4, a transient clinical improvement and a reduction of inflammatory lesions in the oesophagus were obtained. Three years after the procedure, the patient presented with deterioration of GERD clinical symptoms in the form of: regularly occurring vomiting with periodic admixture of fresh blood, recurrent cough, symptoms of dysphagia and failure to thrive. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (upper GI endoscopy) revealed significant progression of inflammatory changes in the oesophagus and the two-level oesophageal stricture together with endoscopic signs of wrap disruption. Based on the conducted diagnostics, the girl was qualified for surgical revision. The diagnosis was confirmed intraoperatively. During the 4-month postoperative period, a significant clinical improvement and resolution of symptoms were observed. The presented case indicates the need for close and long-term monitoring of patients after EA. In the case of a recurrent reflux oesophagitis in patients after anti-reflux surgery, the possibility of prolonged complications, such as a wrap disruption, herniation or slippage should be taken into consideration.
Copy-number variants (CNVs) are an important cause of human neurodevelopmental disorders. We present the first case of a 424 kb de novo 20q13.11q13.12 microdeletion in a patient with attention deficit disorder, tics and autistic behaviors, such as emotional and behavioral problems, and movement stereotypes. This region includes three genes expressed in the brain: SFRS6, PTPRT and L3MBTL. Our results suggest that loss of the chromosomal region 20q13.11q13.12 is causative for the clinical findings observed in the patient.