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Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) affect the temporomandibular joints, the masticatory muscles, and surrounding tissues. Among symptoms such as jumps, joint noises, reduced mouth opening (closed lock), difficulties in closing the mouth (subluxation or open lock), pain is the most common symptom encountered among patients diagnosed with temporomandibular disorders. As literature on this topic is abundant and sometimes controversial, the authors focus on reviewing the state of art of occlusal splints indications. Therefore, the most common occlusal splints, like Lucia jig, nociceptive trigeminal inhibition (NTI), directive splints, etc., are being described, based on their design and therapeutic indications. Cases of malocclusions associated or not with parafunctions are usually manageable using the splints mentioned in this article. In case of disc displacements, occlusal appliances can be used, but as the etiology is multifactorial, there are some limitations, depending on the complexity of each clinical situation.


Cystic fibrosis is a polymorphic disease, marked by multiple and difficult-to-treat respiratory exacerbations with severe evolution. The lung disease dictates the disease’s evolution and it must be diagnosed early and treated accordingly, but the diagnosis is sometimes challenging because of the lack of a sensible tool. In the era of the biomarkers, the need for a sensitive and reliable one would be extremely important, considering that inflammation secondary to infections produce irreversible structural changes in the cystic fibrosis lungs. The present paper reviews the studied biomarkers in inflammation and infection with potential role in cystic fibrosis lung disease.



Through this study, we want to see to what extent the stress is present among the patients admitted in the intensive care units of the Fundeni Clinical Institute of Bucharest, outlining intervention strategies both individually and collectively and validating the psychological evaluation tool (IPAT) specific to the anesthesia and intensive care units in our population.


Intensive Psychological Assessment Tool (IPAT) with 10 items was used for stress assessment in the intensive care unit and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) with 14 items and two subscales, one for anxiety (7 items) and one for depression (7 items).


The study demonstrates the validity of IPAT scale for the patients participating in the study; the results of the study provide the specialists in anesthesia and intensive care units directions to identify elements of stress, anxiety and depression – directions that can improve their daily work, communication with patients and possibly a better quality of life for all involved in the care of a patient.


The results of the study provide the specialists in anesthesia and intensive care units the directions to improve their daily work and possibly a better quality of life for all involved in the care of a patient.


Background: Allergy is one of the most widespread diseases in this century. Allergy-causing materials used in dentistry are most frequently metals, such as nickel, cobalt, palladium, and amalgam, certain components of dental composites, denture resin materials, and even certain mouthwash components. The aim of this study was to assess dentists’ experience regarding allergies occurring in their practice among patients and among dental team members.

Material and methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based study, in which 104 dentists responded.

Results: Immediate allergic reactions were more often caused by different drugs, detergents, and anesthetics, while delayed allergic reactions were mostly caused by acrylates. Allergic reactions occurred more often among women than men, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that allergies in dentistry appear mainly among adults, caused mostly by acrylates, metals, and different drugs. Immediate allergic reactions are often present, and mostly women are susceptible to allergies.


Introduction: Mapping the branching patterns of the thoracoacromial artery has a particular practical importance. Familiarity with the different anatomical variations is essential for successful surgical procedures in the anterior shoulder region.

Case presentation: We present an unusual anatomical variant observed during the dissection of a cadaver at the Department of Anatomy and Embryology of the “George Emil Palade” University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science and Technology of Târgu Mureş, Romania. According to the classical description, the thoracoacromial artery originates from the second part of the axillary artery, but we observed an unusual branching variation: the thoracoacromial artery provided a subscapular branch right after its origin, then it split into a pectoral branch, the lateral thoracic artery, and a common trunk that gave a second pectoral branch and a deltoid-acromial branch. The clavicular branch was missing.

Conclusions: The case we presented demonstrates that there are anatomical variations of the axillary artery system that are partially or entirely different from the classical descriptions. Our study describes a variation of the thoracoacromial artery that has not been reported so far.


Over the last 20 years, sport for development (SFD) has become an increasingly used tool to tackle education-related challenges around the world and has even become recognized by major international institutions such as the United Nations and the Commonwealth. In spite of this, evidence on the effectiveness of SFD programs on educational outcomes is limited. Through a Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA), this paper seeks to begin addressing this gap. Literature is included if it quantitatively examines the relationship between participation in a SFD program and educational outcomes, namely academic performance, school attendance, or attitudes and behaviors related to school. Results are then organized and presented according to these aforementioned areas. The identified literature paints a mixed picture of SFD’s impact on educational outcomes related to academic performance and school attendance, though the data related to improved attitude and behavior is more positive. Overall, the lack of research on this topic and the deficiencies in some of the identified studies do not allow for the conclusion that SFD generates positive education-related outcomes. This paper concludes by proposing potential solutions to address this gap in research.


Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) has been defined as clinical presentation of an acute coronary syndrome with laboratory evidence of myocardial necrosis, but with coronary stenosis of less than 50% on coronary angiography. On the other side, myocarditis is an inflammatory response triggered by viral, bacterial, fungal, lymphocytic, eosinophilic, or autoimmune myocardial injury, which may be associated with elevated myocardial necrosis serum biomarkers. We present the case of a young male patient with acute chest pain, ST-segment elevation, and high-sensitivity troponin levels of 22,162 ng/L.


The aim of this review is to provide a short update on whether treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) has beneficial or harmful effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Epidemiological studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 infects all age groups, presenting a higher incidence in elderly patients with various comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. A large proportion of these patients are treated with ACEIs and ARBs. Since it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2) as an entry point into host cells, it is important to know whether ACEIs and ARBs could modify the expression of this enzyme, and thus promote the viral infection. Animal studies and a few studies in humans have shown that renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors increase tissue expression of ACE2, but with potentially beneficial effects. In this context, it is imperative to provide appropriate guidance for clinicians and patients. The major cardiology associations across the world have released statements in which they recommend healthcare providers and patients to continue their treatments for hyper-tension and heart failure as prescribed.


We sought to determine the clinical significance of delayed complications after different neurosurgical procedures, such as chronic sinusitis and frontocutaneus fistula. These can be managed by endoscopic closure or by external approach, depending on the cause and extent of sinusitis. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman who was presented to our ENT Department with a frontocutaneus fistula and was surgically managed.


In the recent years, the development of stomatology with emphasis on dental implants procedures has led to an increase in the number of sinonasal complications. Sinonasal complications of dental disease and treatment are an important cause of sinus pathology, being responsible for 10-12% of all causes of chronic maxillary rhinosinusitis.

The main etiological factors involved in odontogenic sinusitis are represented by dental fillings, tooth roots in traumatic extraction, dental implants displacement and parts of broken instruments. The diagnostic work-up includes evaluation of the symptoms, history of dental treatment, dental examination, CT scan and nasal endoscopy.

The treatment is surgical and can be represented by transnasal endoscopic technique performed by the otorhinolaryngologist or a transoral technique performed by the maxillofacial surgeon when oro-antral fistulas are present. The endoscopic approach is preferred but has its limits when the tooth root is placed in the alveolar recess, or at the level of the anterior, medial and lateral wall of the maxillary sinus. Concurrent middle and inferior antrostomy provides a better view of the sinus and increases effectiveness of the surgical treatment with minimal physiological damage.