The discovery of an adaptive immune system especially in archae and bacteria, CRISPR/Cas has revolutionized the field of agriculture and served as a potential gene editing tool, producing great excitement to the molecular scientists for the improved genetic manipulations. CRISPR/Cas9 is a RNA guided endonuclease which is popular among its predecessors ZFN and TALEN’s. The utilities of CRISPR from its predecessors is the use of short RNA fragments to locate target and breaking the double strands which avoids the need of protein engineering, thus allowing time efficiency measure for gene editing. It is a simple, flexible and highly efficient programmable DNA cleavage system that can be modified for widespread applications like knocking out the genes, controlling transcription, modifying epigenomes, controlling genome-wide screens, modifying genes for disease and stress tolerance and imaging chromosomes. However, gene cargo delivery system, off target cutting and issues on the safety of living organisms imposes major challenge to this system. Several attempts have been done to rectify these challenges; using sgRNA design software, cas9 nickases and other mutants. Thus, further addressing these challenges may open the avenue for CRISPR/cas9 for addressing the agriculture related problems.
A field experiment was carried out in sub-tropical climate of Bhimdattanagar, Kanchanpur to assess the effect of site specific nutrient management approach in productivity of spring rice. The experiment was carried in single factor randomized completely block design with four replication, in four different farmer’s field, each farmers’ field as single replication. The seedlings were grown in the mat nursery bed and transplanted in the experimental plots with different nutrient management practices. Nutrient management practices were Site Specific Nutrient Management with Nutrient Expert dose (SSNMNE)(109:28:38 kg NPK/ha), Government recommendation dose (100:30:30kg NPK/ha +6 ton FYM), Farmer’s field practice (FFP)(different among farmers) with three omission plots viz. omission of Nitrogen (0:28:38 kg NPK/ha), Omission of Phosphorus (109:0:38 kg NPK/ha) and Omission of Potassium (109:28:0 kg NPK/ha). SSNM-NE dose was obtained by household survey in the respective area and using nutrient expert model. The growth parameters, yield, yield attributing traits and total cost of production were recorded. Data were analyzed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) in Genstat. Result indicates that the highest grain yield (5.81 t/ha) was obtained from SSNM-NE which was statistically at par with government recommendation (5.54 t/ha). Similarly, thousand grains weight, straw yield in the experiment 23.20g, 6.90t/ha were significantly higher in SSNM-NE respectively. Straw yield, grain yield and thousand grain weight of SSNM-NE were found to be statistically at par with government recommendation. The economic analysis revealed that higher B: C ratio (1.91), net return and gross return were higher in SSNM-NE.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation of technology, organizational culture and emotional intelligence with knowledge management using the mediators of organizational structure and empowerment. The methodology of the research was descriptive-correlational and the population of the study consisted of all the physical education instructors of Zanjan universities with three-year teaching record (61 people). The population size using the census sample criterion. Research tool included Stankosky and Baldanza’s technology, organizational culture and structure, Bar-On’s emotional intelligence inventory, Spreitzer and Mishra’s empowerment, Kordnaij et al. and Newman and Conrad’s knowledge management framework questionnaires. The structural equation modelling was used via Smart PLS 2 software for analyzing the data. The results showed that there is a negative and significant relation between technology and knowledge management. Also, there is significant relation between organizational culture and knowledge management, emotional intelligence and knowledge management, technology and organizational structure, organizational culture and organizational structure, technology and empowerment, organizational culture and empowerment, organizational structure and empowerment and empowerment and knowledge management; while the significance of relations between organizational structure and knowledge management and emotional intelligence and empowerment were not confirmed. The results of the present study can help the people in charge of education and research in the universities in order to produce, keep and use the needed knowledge related to proper time and place by making decisions and educating people.
Physical activity can contribute to societal health and prevent antisocial behaviors. This study explored the driving forces facilitating these goals in Iran’s socio-cultural context. Through a literature review, investigation of available political documents, interviews with experts and consensus of the research team, seventy-three driving forces were explored from different domains and then categorised via the STEEPV framework. This framework considers drivers from Social, Technological, Environmental, Economic, Political, and Value/Cultural dimensions. The “sport/sport sciences” domain was also considered as an additional domain. In the next step, a questionnaire with an answer scale of 1 to 7 was distributed among experts. The fuzzy Delphi method was used to analyse the collected data. Results showed eighteen drivers from five domains (social, environmental, economic, technological and sport/sports sciences) dramatically influenced leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in Iran. “Physical activity opportunities for vulnerable groups” was identified as the most important driver for participation in LTPA. Results suggest the need for a multidimensional and thorough consideration by organisations, leisure managers and policymakers to discover methods to promote health-related physical activities in the future.
The aims of this study were to adapt the Hungarian version of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2 and test an expanded Sport Commitment Model (SCM) with psychological variables.
Participants were 526 adolescent athletes (aged 14-18 years, 52.3% males). Applied scales were the following: Hungarian version of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2, Consideration of the Future Consequences Scale and Health Attitudes Scale. Exploratory, confirmatory, and path analysis were used for statistical analysis.
Our result showed adequate construct validity of the Hungarian version of Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2. We found several positive predictors of Enthusiastic Commitment and three positive predictors of Constrained Commitment. We found that Health Attitudes had positive relationship with Constrained Commitment and it was associated with future goals and plans; whereas Enthusiastic Commitment had a positive relationship, and Constrained Commitment had a negative relationship with Future Orientation.
Information about sport commitment provided by Sport Commitment Questionnaire may be useful as a tool to prevent dropout among young athletes.
Wheat is one of the important cereal crops in Nepal as well as globally. But due to varied climatic and sowing conditions low production has been reported throughout the world including Nepal. Sowing rates are highly correlated to yield and its yield attributing characters. Yield loss has been reported 50-62% under a late sown condition which shows a heavy threat to food security problems. Vijaya is the most recommended varieties under late sown conditions due to its high yield and less threat to late sown conditions. Thus identification and release of varieties suitable under late sown conditions are of the utmost importance. Researches should be accelerated under different agro-ecological zones to study the constraints associated with late sown wheat in Nepal.
Carbon emission is the biggest problem all over the world. The actualizing of low carbon emission in the bread kitchen and dessert shop segment permits the difference in its mechanical procedure through the improvement of an eco-proficient framework. This study was to line up bread and cake with fully completely different wheat quality, baking time, and temperature through low carbon emission. The prepared samples were chemically analyzed for wet content, ash content, compound content, and organoleptic. Among the four processed cake products based on each parameter tested organoleptically, cupcake products were the most preferable one. Bread products made with substitution of 50% have been received by consumer panelists. The results of this study were also in line with the research conducted by which resulted in a substitution of spinach flour substitution of up to 60% still acceptable by panelists. Sponge cake from flour can still be received by panelists with 50% substitution. 12% of moisture will help 5 days’ self-life without chemical preservatives. The oven is the largest of the three consumers and typically accounts for between 35% and 45% of the total site carbon emissions. The dark cake pan, which holds in more heat than light-colored baking pans and bakes our cake batter faster. Considering that the most significant dark non-stick pan was suggested for baking low carbon emission, it will be reducing the baking temperature by 25° F. Good practice opportunities can be delivered for various plant/equipment utility serving could deliver on average a 10% saving in total CO2 emissions for the sector. This would speak to a CO2 decrease of 57 000 ton CO2 / year over the world.
European Research Council Executive Agency, (ERCEA), has the mission to encourage the highest quality research in Europe through competitive funding and to support investigator-driven frontier research across all field, on the basis of scientific excellence. In 2019, European Research Council (ERC) updates the Panel Structure in 3 areas: Social Sciences and Humanities SH, Physical Sciences and Engineering PE, Life Sciences LS, 25 panels and 333 sub-panels. Every UE countries are updating own academic body system to align to the ERC. In Italy, this alignment is not possible because Movement and sport science has been together place SH and LS as academic disciplines of Physical training and Sport sciences. This is the vexata quaestio that makes the Italian academic system different from the other EU countries with consequences on the development of Italian research in Europa. Historical review explains why this division exists and why it begun after the second great war and developed to nowadays, determining an atypical model than others European countries. Movement and sport science should to be reasonably placed in an unique scientific area or alignments coherently at the related subpanels according to the scientific evidences, even if they are placed in more ERC areas. Both options can be applied according to ERC thought to resolve the actual problem.
The research was conducted from January 2019 to June 2019 to study the fish production and marketing system in fish zone, Rupandehi. Altogether 95 respondents including 27 small farmers, 35 medium farmers and 33 large farmers were selected for household survey using simple random sampling for the study. Statistical tools, Ms- excel and SPSS of version 23 were used for data analysis. From the study, it was evident that, six species of carps of fingerlings size were stocked with high average number of common carps (3885.5/ha.) followed by silver carp (3880.5/ha). The average production of fish species was 6.06ton/ha which is slightly higher than the national average. The observed data revealed that, marketing of major quantity of fish was from on farm sale i.e. 55.78% followed by local market sale (18.94%), live fish sale in retailers (5.26%). Similarly, percentage of farmers selling fish to wholesaler, consumers, retailers and neighbours were 63.3%, 30.5%, 26.5% and 26.3% respectively. Cost and returns analysis showed average B/C ratio of 2.13. Problem ranking using 5 point scale value showed high cost of feed as the most serious problem with index value of 0.94 in the study area.