A pilot study was performed to evaluate the safety and serological responses after co-administration of two multivalent inactivated vaccines to pregnant cattle. One vaccine was directed against bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and contained antigens of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3) and Mannheimia haemolytica (Mh). The second vaccine targeted neonatal calf diarrhoea (NCD) and was composed of inactivated antigens of bovine rotavirus (BRV), bovine coronavirus (BCV) and E. coli. The use of these combinations have been used more and more by veterinary practitioners as there exist some clear evidence that both vaccines improves the passive protection via the colostrum for the relevant pathogens. However, up until now, no safety or efficacy data has been available concerning such co-administrations. The safety of both vaccines and the serological responses to the BRD vaccine has been evaluated when used at the same time, but without mixing and compared to the responses to the administration of each vaccine independently. There was no evidence of any negative effect on calving or calf health in any of the vaccinated animals. The antibody levels against BRSV and Mh in the sera of the calves from cows vaccinated with both vaccines were not significantly different from the levels in the sera of calves vaccinated with the BRD vaccine alone. The results from this pilot study demonstrated that the co-administration of the two multivalent inactivated vaccines had no detrimental effect on the safety or serological responses to the BRD vaccine compared to the independent use of the vaccines.
The administration of antibiotics to day old chicks as a means of prevention or treatment of suspected hatchery or farm-borne infections is common, especially in developing countries. This practice could contribute to a poor immune response following Newcastle disease (ND)-LaSota vaccinations, in addition to the sluggish growth in broiler chickens. This study was aimed at determining: the antibody titre to ND-LaSota vaccine, live weight, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) of broiler chicken exposed early to gentamicin and doxycycline. One hundred, day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 25). Group 1 served as a control, while groups 2 and 4 received gentamycin and doxycycline, respectively. The chicks in group 3 were treated with a combination of gentamicin and doxycycline (1 : 1). All drugs were administered via the drinking water from the 2nd to the 6th day of the chicks’ life. On day 18, the birds received ND-LaSota vaccine intraocularly. At weekly intervals, the post-vaccination antibody titre, live weight and weight gain were determined. The feed conversion efficiency (FCE) of the different groups was calculated at the end of the experiments. The results showed that the NDV antibody titre of the antibiotic-treated groups did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) from that of the control. However, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the live weight, weight gain and FCE of the control birds when compared to the antibiotic-treated groups.
Foodborne pathogens are the leading cause of illness and death in developing countries and are often associated with poor hygiene and unsafe food storage conditions. Using central cold rooms with alternate power supply in preserving meats due to erratic power supply is common among meat traders in Nigeria. However, the public health safety of the operations of this practice remains un-investigated. We conducted a microbial assessment of aseptically collected meat swabs from three selected major cold rooms in Ibadan for Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using 14 different antibiotics at standard concentrations following Kirby-Bauer Assays. The data were analysed with Stata 12.0 using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Of 180 meat swabs collected, 42.2 % were positive for S. aureus, 22.2 % for L. monocytogenes, 20.0 % for Salmonella spp. and 6.7 % for E. coli. All of the isolates exhibited total resistance to seven of the antibiotics. Escherichia coli showed the highest resistance to 12 antibiotics, followed by Salmonella spp. (11 antibiotics), L. monocytogenes (10 antibiotics) and S. aureus (7 antibiotics). Sampling locations were significantly associated with the prevalence of L. monocytogenes (P = 0.008) and S. aureus (P = 0.000), but not with Salmonella spp. (P = 0.435) or E. coli (P = 0.117). The study revealed a heavy microbial contamination with major foodborne pathogens characterized by a high level of antibiotic resistance. These findings portend that the current operations associated with the practice of using central cold rooms in meat preservation in Nigeria undermine public health safety and need to be urgently addressed.
The nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids and determining their sequential arrangement had always been an integral part of biological research. Since the past seven decades, researchers from multi-disciplinary fields has been working together to innovate the best sequencing methods. Various methods had been proposed, from some oligonucleotides to the whole genome sequencing, and the growth had gone through adolescence to the mature phase where it is now capable of sequencing the whole genome at a low cost and within a short time frame. DNA sequencing has become a key technology in every discipline of biology and medicine. This review aims to highlight the evolution of DNA sequencing techniques and the machines used, including their principles and key achievements.
The microscopic filamentous fungi of the genus Fusarium are capable of producing secondary metabolites—mycotoxins. Fusarium fungi synthesize trichothecenes, zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisins under appropriate environmental conditions. In this biological experiment, we studied the effects of zearalenone on a model organism called Artemia franciscana. During the three-day in vivo tests, we used five different concentrations of zearalenone (0.08 ppm, 0.4 ppm, 2 ppm, 10 ppm and 50 ppm). The results of this study showed that as the zearalenone concentration and the duration of the mycotoxin exposure increased, the lethality of artemia also increased. Our study showed that the toxicity of zearalenone to Artemia franciscana was relatively low.
Rabies, a zoonotic disease, is one of the deadliest and most serious threats to public health as it has an almost 100 % case fatality rate. The global estimated mortality of the virus is between 40,000 to 70,000 deaths annually with most of the death occurring in the developing countries of Africa and Asia. The objective of this study was to present the incidence and mortality rates from rabies in 28 African countries from 2005 to 2018. Secondary data were obtained from the World Organization for Animal Health Database. The data from 2005 to 2018 were used, as this was the period with available data in the database. The data were analysed using SPSS version 25 and other descriptive statistical tools. The highest combined rabies incidence and mortality in the time range (2005—2018) was 1601 in 2006, while the lowest was 157 in 2005. Just five countries (Angola, Central African Republic, Kenya, Mozambique and Senegal) had 65 % of the rabies cases and mortality. Notably, the data on the incidence and mortality were 100 % similar, as all of the cases of rabies in the 28 African countries within 2005—2018 resulted in death. Therefore, more work should be devoted to research on rabies prevention and cure. Toward that goal, practices and policies should be implemented to enable the acquisition of accurate and consistent rabies data.
Nowadays many chemicals are widely used in agriculture to ensure high crop yields or in veterinary/human medicine to cure diseases. After their improper usage they may contaminate the environment, persist in it and adversely affect both the target and/or the non-target organisms. One of the ways to detect the occurrence of chemicals in the environment is to assess their impact on aquatic and farm animals; both are directly or indirectly exposed via their feed and water. The micronucleus assay is a standardly used cytogenetic test for the simultaneous detection of clastogenic and aneugenic agents. Additionally, cytotoxic effects are also assessed by analysing the proliferation changes using the cytokinesis-blocked proliferation index. The occurrence of micronuclei is analysed in many types of cells like the peripheral blood cells, bone marrow or cell lines according to standards for micronuclei detection. The analysis of published results has shown that the micronucleus assay is, together with the chromosomal aberration test, one of the most often used test in genotoxicity assessment. Its results have contributed to reassessing the use of multiple chemicals available on the market. Moreover, it is a compulsory test before approving the chemical/ pesticide for the market.
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) associated diseases are a group of emerging devastating pig diseases worldwide. Due to a dearth of information on the virus in Nigeria, this study was carried out on 12 farms in Abeokuta Ogun State, Nigeria. Key production problems were identified through a questionnaire survey and direct field observations. The prevalence of the PCV2 was determined by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR); 207 sera of pigs were obtained from the farms, DNAs extracted and amplified by the PCR. Based on gel results, the prevalence of PCV2 types were recorded and the effects of age, sex and geographic area determined. The observed production problems (and the percentage of farms suffering from such problems) were: runting (91.7 %), high piglet mortality (83.3 %), late term abortion (50 %), stillbirth (50 %) and anoestrous (41.7 %). The overall prevalence of 8.7 % of the PCV2 viral DNA was obtained. A single infection of PCV2b and PCV2a accounted for a prevalence of 5.3 % and 2.4 %, respectively, while a concurrent infection of both was found in only 1 % of the pigs. The prevalence of PCV2 was not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by age or sex; with the rates in adults, growers and piglets being 9.9 %, 8.1 % and 8.1 %, respectively, while in males and females, the rates were 9.4 % and 9.0 %, respectively. The prevalence of PCV2 in high-density areas (13.2 %) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in low-density areas (4.0 %). It was concluded that PCV2a and PCV2b were present in pigs in Abeokuta, Nigeria and PCV2b was more prevalent. It was recommended that large-scale epidemiological studies covering all geographical regions be carried out with sequencing and phylogenetic analysis to characterize the PCV2 genotypes present in Nigeria.
Xylene is mainly used as a solvent in the printing, tire and leather industries. It is also used as: a facility cleaner, paint and varnish thinner, component of fuel, and chemical for the laboratory processing of histological preparations. For these reasons people are frequently exposed to xylene and the risk of intoxication is high. This study focused on the protective effect of flaxseed on mice experimentally intoxicated with xylene. The experiment lasted 14 days. The mice used in this study (n = 60) were allocated to 3 groups: the control group (C) received only the standard diet; the xylene group (X) was fed a standard diet and was administered xylene p. o. (10 µl daily); and the xylene + flaxseed group (XF) received the standard feed, crushed flaxseed and xylene at the same dose as group X. The observations involved changes in: body weight, liver enzyme levels, and caspase activity in the liver of the mice. The administration of additives resulted in significant changes in the body weight of the mice on day 7 of the experiment (P < 0.05). The highest weight gain was observed in mice from the XF group. In contrast, the body weight of the mice from group X exposed only to xylene was the lowest. The biochemical analysis of the liver cells of the xylene intoxicated mice showed elevated levels of: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), De Ritis ratio (AST/ALT ratio), and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes LDH-3 and LDH-5. Caspase-3, the marker of apoptosis, was increased in the XF group. Thus, the administration of flaxseed in our experiment had a beneficial effect on the clinical and metabolic parameters of mice intoxicated with xylene. Our results indicated that the administration of flaxseed, may act as a preventative measure with respect to xylene intoxication of animals; however, further analyses are needed to confirm this assumption.
Animals have been known to be the main study subjects when investigating the epidemiology of zoonotic Gram-positive Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens. This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining the occurrence of C. difficile and C. perfringens in pigs as well as the associated risk factors within Zaria and environs, in Kaduna State of Nigeria. A pre-sampling survey led to the selection of Shika, Samaru and Ungwan Mangu in the pig farming communities of Zaria and environs in Kaduna North as the study sites. Rectal swabs from 132 pigs were obtained and anaerobically cultured in fluid thioglycolate and further grown on reinforced clostridia agar. The colonies obtained were sub-cultured in Clostridium difficile moxalactam norfloxacin agar and reinforced clostridia agar containing egg yolk tellurite. C. difficile was not detected. However, C. perfringens was detected at a prevalence of 16.7 % (22/132). Isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 13 antimicrobials. Only 1 isolate (4.55 %) demonstrated susceptibility to vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin. Of the bivariate analyses of the risk factors studied, only the type of piggery and pig management were statistically significant (P < 0.05) for C. perfringens. Therefore, it should be recognized that there is a need for pig farmers to be enlightened about this pathogen and its prevention through good management practices and hygiene.