Browse

1 - 10 of 915 items :

  • Molecular Biology x
  • Microbiology and Virology x
  • Veterinary Medicine x
Clear All

Abstract

Introduction

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a rare, under-explored lethal viral infection of cattle with gammaherpesvirus aetiological agents. Most often, the disease occurs on farms where cattle and sheep are kept together. However, other trigger mechanisms and environmental factors contribute. This study investigates the causation of MCF.

Material and Methods

An outbreak of MCF occurred in June - August 2017 in Kharchev village in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. In this paper, we provide epidemiological (sanitary status of pastures, watering places, and premises) and weather data during the outbreak, and descriptions of the clinical signs and post-mortem changes in cattle. The virus was detected and isolated from pathological material samples and identified by molecular methods.

Results

Extreme weather conditions, mixed-herd cattle and sheep farming, and unsatisfactory feed quality contributed to the outbreak. A virus related to herpesvirus OvHV2 was isolated and typed (MCF/Irkutsk/2017). Phylogenetic analysis showed its close genetic relationship to isolates from cattle and sheep in Germany, USA, and the Netherlands.

Conclusion

Sporadic outbreaks of MCF caused by biotic and abiotic factors together are typical for the Russian Federation, and the Irkutsk outbreak epitomised this. Temperature anomalies caused pasture depletion, resulting in feed and water deficiency for grazing animals and dehydration and acidosis. Heat stress in animals ultimately led to the occurrence of MCF in the herd.

Abstract

Introduction

Cysticercosis caused by the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena is economically the most important endemic parasitic disease in Iraq. Few data are available relating to the genetic divergence of this helminth. This study aimed to molecularly characterise Cysticercus tenuicollis isolates from sheep in Sulaymaniyah province, Iraq.

Material and Methods

DNA extraction and amplification of specimens of C. tenuicollis from 46 sheep were conducted by PCR for the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. The 19 amplicons were subjected to purification and partial sequencing.

Results

Five 12S rRNA nucleotide sequence haplotypes were found. The pairwise nucleotide difference between haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene ranged from 0.2% to 0.7%. Four out of the five haplotypes of C. tenuicollis contained one to two base mutations and were discovered in Iraq for the first time, and this may be a unique mutation globally which has not been recorded previously. Three newly recorded haplotypes contained only one single mutation, and the other one contained two mutations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolated strains were closely related to Iranian sheep isolates.

Conclusions

Four new strains of T. hydatigena were discovered for the first time in the study area.

Abstract

Introduction

The plate counting method widely used at present to discern viable from non-viable Brucella in the host or cell is time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a rapid, simple method for detecting and counting viable Brucella organisms.

Material and Methods

Using propidium monoazide (PMA) to inhibit amplification of DNA from dead Brucella, a novel, rapid PMA-quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) detection method for counting viable Brucella was established. The standard recombinant plasmid with the target BCSP31 gene fragment inserted was constructed for drawing a standard curve. The reaction conditions were optimised, and the sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability were analysed.

Results

The optimal exposure time and working concentration of PMA were 10 min and 15 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient (R2) of the standard curve was 0.999. The sensitivity of the method was 103 CFU/mL, moreover, its specificity and repeatability also met the requirements. The concentration of B. suis measured by the PMA-qPCR did not differ significantly from that measured by the plate counting method, and the concentrations of viable bacteria in infected cells determined by the two methods were of the same order of magnitude.

Conclusion

In this study, a rapid and simple PMA-qPCR counting method for viable Brucella was established, which will facilitate related research.

Abstract

Introduction

Salmonellosis is a zoonotic disease, and Salmonella spp. can sometimes be found in dogs and cats, posing a risk to human health. In this study, the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of faecal Salmonella were investigated in pet dogs and cats in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

Material and Methods

Faecal samples from 243 dogs and 113 cats, at seven pet clinics, were tested between March 2018 and May 2019. Each Salmonella isolate was characterised using serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests.

Results

The prevalence of Salmonella was 9.47% in dogs and 1.77% in cats. Among the 25 isolates, eight serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were detected, S. Kentucky (n = 11), S. Indiana (n = 5), and S. Typhimurium (n = 4) predominating. S. Derby, S. Toucra, S. Sandiego, S. Newport, and S. Saintpaul all occurred singly. The 23 Salmonella strains found in dogs were from seven different serovars, while the two strains in cats were from two. The highest resistance rates were found for tetracycline (92%), azithromycin (88%), cefazolin (84%), nalidixic acid (80%), ampicillin (80%), ceftriaxone (80%), and streptomycin (76%). Resistance to three or more antimicrobial agents was detected in 24 (96%) isolates. Most of the S. Kentucky and S. Indiana isolates were multi-drug resistant to more than 11 agents.

Conclusion

The carriage rate was far higher in dogs than in cats from Xuzhou. Some isolated strains were highly resistant to antimicrobials used to treat infections in humans and pets, which may raise the risk of humans being infected with multi-drug resistant Salmonella via close contact with pets.

Abstract

Introduction

Mobile phones (MP) and other electronic and communication devices that are used daily expose users to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and contribute to an increasing incidence of neurological disorders. Brain tissue is the closest organ to the MP as it operates, thus the influence of MP radiation on brain tissue is of particular concern, although research is still inconclusive. The present study investigated the possible effect of an EMF (1,350–1,375 megahertz (MHz)) from an MP on morphological and histopathological profiles in the mouse brain.

Material and methods

Healthy BALB/c mice were assigned to three equal groups (a control and two experimental groups, n = 10 each). Experimental mice were exposed to EMFs continuously for 72 h, those of experimental group I to a 1,350 MHz field at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg, and group II to a 1,375 MHz field EMF at an SAR of 4.0 W/kg. Brain segmentation and histopathological analysis were applied to detect changes in the morphometric parameters of the brain lobes and identify pathological lesions, respectively.

Results

Histopathology results revealed shrinkage of pyramidal neurons, presence of mild perivascular and perineural oedema, and some vacuolation of neurons and glial cells derived from mouse great hemispheres. The lesions also included reduction of Purkinje cells, vacuolisation of neurons and glial cells, and interstitial oedema in the cerebellum.

Conclusion

MP distance of 3 cm from the cage may induce appreciable morphological changes in mouse brain structures; therefore, more comprehensive research is essential for assessment of safe distance. These pronounced effects may interfere with the results of laboratory tests on murine experimental models in veterinary or biomedical research.

Abstract

Introduction

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in fast activation of the immune response to a variety of pathogens, including parasites. In this study, we focused on TLR2, because this receptor is one of the best known and most frequently analysed members of the TLR family. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Trichinella spiralis on expression of TLR2 during the intestinal stage of infection.

Material and Methods

The experimental material consisted of isolates prepared from the intestines (jejunum and colon) of BALB/c mice infected with T. spiralis taken at 4, 8, and 16 days post infection.

Results

Our results based on quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA level for TLR2 was statistically significantly higher in the jejuna of mice infected with T. spiralis than in this tissue of uninfected mice. In addition, the presence of TLR2 protein in the intestinal phase of trichinellosis was confirmed by a strong positive immunohistochemical reaction.

Conclusion

Our results indicate that infection with T. spiralis changes the expression of TLR2 in the small intestine of the mouse host and suggest a contribution of these receptors to the host defence mechanisms during experimental trichinellosis.

Abstract

Introduction

Differing conditions in captive breeding and in the wild have impact on the mineral profile of the pheasant carcass and its heavy metal contents. This may be an indicator of environmental contamination. The study evaluated the nutritional composition and selected macro- and trace element contents (heavy metals in particular) in usable sections of pheasant breast and thigh muscles originating from captive breeding and wild birds.

Material and Methods

The tests were performed on the breast and thigh muscles of 20 wild and 20 farm bred birds from around Lublin, Poland, with equal sex representation. The nutrient and lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel contents were determined using inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

Results

The farmed pheasants had a higher proportion of breast muscle. The thigh muscles of all birds had a higher fat content than the breast muscles (5.1 g vs. 3.4 g per kg of natural weight). The macroelement level depended on the muscle type and bird origin. The trace element content also did and gender dependence was also evident. The wild birds contained more cadmium in the breast muscles and lead in both muscles than the farm-raised ones.

Conclusion

The high quality and usefulness of wild and farmed pheasant meat is confirmed. It has advantageous macro- and trace element contents and permissible heavy metal contents except for lead in wild birds. The heavy metal level can be a bioindicator of their environmental occurrence. In wild birds, the lead level may also reflect birdshot remnants.

Abstract

Introduction

Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of pigs, leading to economic losses around the world. Attenuated live vaccines with CSFV antigens have played an important role in the prevention and control of the disease. Porcine kidney 15 (PK15) cells have been widely used for the propagation of CSFV, but this cell line is not efficient or homogeneously susceptible to viral infection.

Material and Methods

To achieve a homogeneous PK15 cell line which enabled high titre replication of CSFV, we used the limiting dilution cell cloning method.

Results

We developed two cell clones, PK15-1A6 and PK15-3B1, which respectively have high- and low-permissive phenotypes to CSFV infection. The PK15-1A6, PK15-3B1, and PK15 parent cells showed different characteristics in cell proliferation rate, susceptibility to CSFV infection, and CSFV production. The mean virus titres per millilitre reflected by TCID50 values in PK15-1A6, PK15-3B1, and PK15 parent cells were 106.85, 103.63, and 104.74, respectively.

Conclusion

The PK15-1A6 cell clone is more permissive to CSFV infection than the PK15 parent cells. The screened high-permissive cells will be useful for CSFV propagation and vaccine development in vitro, and facilitate research on the pathogenicity of CSFV.

Abstract

In canine and feline populations, the number of neoplasm cases continues to increase around the world. Attempts are being made in centres of research to identify new biomarkers that speed up and improve the quality of oncological diagnostics and therapy in human and animal tumour patients. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a promising biomarker with increasing relevance to human oncology, but as yet with less application in veterinary oncology. The expression of COX-2 increases significantly during pathological processes involving inflammation, pain or fever. It is also overexpressed in humans presenting various types of tumours and in selected types of tumours in animals, particularly in dogs. This article discusses the expression of COX-2 in canine and feline tumours, the importance of COX-2 as a biomarker with diagnostic, therapeutic, prognostic and predictive relevance in oncology, and the clinical significance of inhibiting COX-2 overexpression in tumours.

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of this study was to determine the content of fatty acids in eggs harvested from two edible subspecies of Polish-bred common garden snail from the Cornu genus, as well as this content in the retail-ready product obtained from these eggs.

Material and Methods

Material for the study consisted of eggs from two subspecies of edible snails: the small (Cornu aspersum aspersum), and large (Cornu aspersum maxima) common garden snails. The eggs studied were in two forms, the first of which had undergone initial processing to the half-product stage and the second of which was the final product available on the Polish market under the name “Snail Eggs”. The gas chromatography method was used to determine the content of fatty acids.

Results

More than 75% of the studied fats were saturated fatty acids, dominated by palmitic and stearic acids. The average content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 0.37%, and it was a combination of two acids: linoleic (C18:2n6c), and its trans isomer (C18:2n6t). No significant differences were found comparing individual fatty acids content between the two species’ eggs as half-products, or between the half-products and the final product.

Conclusion

The fat in raw and processed eggs of common garden snails holds low nutritional value, and the processing did not affect the content of fatty acids.