Agri–food sector is one of the biggest and most supported economic sectors in the EU. It is a key sector for sustainable economic development and food safety and security. The EU Common Agricultural Policy (hereinafter CAP) is its backbone – it helps farmers with income support and market measures on the one hand and, on the other hand, it ensures sustainable rural development in individual EU countries. Despite of the huge support agricultural sectors in Member States are facing serious problems – in Slovakia it is especially the low level of domestic agricultural production, low quality of food products, high unemployment rate especially among young people, ageing of population and abandonment of rural areas. Looking for solutions for these problems mentioned there is a great challenge for relevant public authorities and for the academic sector, as well. Based on these facts the initiative to submit a project proposal has arisen within the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence – which would respond on challenges in this field. The project (Centre of Excellence for European Agri-Food Chain – CEEAG 611446-EPP-1-2019-1-SK-EPPJMO-CoE) has been granted and its main focus will start from important and irreplaceable role of agriculture and food industry in national economies of (not only) Member States via ensuring their food security under conditions given by the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) – one of the most supported policies in the EU.
The paper aims to critically analyse the theory of environmental racism as a part of the concept of environmental justice in order to point out possible overuse of the term racism. Through theoretical analysis, the author tries to prove that labelling any negative impacts of the environmental burden on racial or ethnic minorities with racism is an unnecessary overwork which moreover might be, according to available data, inconsistent with reality.
Arrangements for water resources or irrigation governance designs from the colonial era to the reform order always cause controversies and problems. In physiological issues, there is not known change in the meaning of water as a public good being a private good. Theoretical problems, the basis for the design of the theory of management of chaotic water resources is in line with the existence of Law No. 17 of 2019 concerning water resources. The purpose of this study is to analyze and find the implications of norm conflicts in water resources governance arrangements, both vertically between Law No. 17 of 2019 on Water Resources with Article 33 (2) and (3) with the 1945 NRI Law, and horizontally with RI Law Number 5 of 1960 concerning Basic Regulations on Agrarian Principles. This research uses normative legal research methods with various approaches, including the statute approach, historical approach and conceptual approach. The analytic part of this research is using an investigation strategy. The results showed that the article in Law No. 17 of 2019 proves that the production branches that are important for the State that control the public interest can not be controlled by the State, therefore the article in Law No. 17 Hold 2019 is contrary to Article 33 paragraph (2) and (3) of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia cause that water is a State asset and national assets cannot be used so much for the prosperity of the people, therefore article 46 paragraph (1), Article 47, Article 48, Article 49, Article 51, Article 52 Law No.17 of 2019 is contrary to Article 33 paragraph (3) of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia.
The purpose of the discussion is an attempt to determine in what forms, which meet the criteria of local food systems (LFS), it is possible under Italian law to sell agri-food products by the farmer who is their producer. These forms imply a direct sale, or with the participation of at most one intermediary, to the final consumer, in close geographical distance between the place of production and sale. The analysis showed that Italian legislator, national and regional, provides for many instruments that are crucial in creating LFS, such as direct sales of agri-food products, farmers’ markets reserved only for the local farmers; the sale of meals consisting of the farmer’s products at the agritourism; wine routes; regional designation “products from zero kilometres”, emphasizing the geographical proximity between the place of manufacture and the place of sale; as well as a support for the social initiatives such as Solidarity Purchasing Groups.
The paper deals with collective protection of consumer rights from the European and Czech point of view. The attention is focused on the question of the concept of legal standing to bring a collective actions (i.e. locus standi) The article compares the legal regulation of legal standing to bring a collective action in the Commission Recommendation of 11 June 2013 on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms in the Member States concerning violations of rights granted under Union law (2013/396/EU), in the proposal a new Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on representative actions for the protection of the collective interests of consumers [COM/2018/184 final-2018/0089 (COD)] and the Czech bill for the Collective Redress Act.
The reform of the self–governments in Slovakia caused the transfer of competencies from state authorities to municipalities. Every municipality is in accordance with Act no. 369/1990 Coll. on the Municipal Establishment obliged to ensure original and transferred competences for its inhabitants. However, for objective reasons, not all municipalities are able to perform them. Municipalities began to use the possibility of mutual contractual cooperation in accordance with the amendment to the Act on Municipal Establishment, under which municipalities can cooperate with each other for the purpose of carrying out a specific task or activity. Such cooperation between municipalities also exists for the purpose of exercising competence in the field of the building order. Pursuant to Act no. 50/1976 Coll. as amended, each municipality is a building authority. The aim of the paper is to qualitatively assess the reasons for contractual cooperation between the municipalities of the Nitra (NR) and Košice (KE) regions in the area of the building order (by using the method of structured interview). So far, 2 649 municipalities, which are a part of 189 joint building offices (JBO), have used the possibility of mutual contractual cooperation in the SR. Specifically, in the NR region there are 343 municipalities, which are part of 26 JBOs and in the KE region 391 municipalities, which are part of 28 JBOs. The qualitative method was used to find out the opinions of the building offices. Based on the obtained results, an optimal solution for problems of cooperation of municipalities was proposed by adopting new legislation, namely by the allocation of building offices to the seats of registry offices.
The given article is an evaluation of the implementation and development of Georgia’s cybersecurity policy, and its influence on Georgia’s global cybersecurity index. The study covers the period from 2008 to 2018. In 2008 Georgia became one of the first victims of hybrid warfare. During the August 2008 Russo-Georgian war, Georgian government websites were attacked by hackers affiliated with Russia. In the given period, cybersecurity was not the priority direction for Georgia, therefore government portals were easy targets for cybercriminals and the government couldn’t prevent the cyberattacks. After 2008, the government decided to develop a state cybersecurity policy. In 2012 the country ratified the Council of Europe’s cybersecurity convention. At the same time, the “Law of Georgia on Information Security” which had become a basic document of the cybersecurity state policy implementation, had been adopted. The document was followed by a cybersecurity strategy. During the following years, based on cybersecurity strategy document, Georgia implemented 2 action plans and defined the relevant state agencies responsible for “cyber safety” of the country. As a result of the reforms, in 2017, according to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Cybersecurity Global Index, Georgia has been ranked among the top ten countries. The given article is a chronological description of a Georgian cyberpolicy and cybercapabilities evolution. It includes cases of organized cybercrime carried out against the state and examples of the development of Georgian cybersecurity policy which was reflected on the global international cybersecurity index of the country.
The paper analyzes the development of the legislation of cooperative law since the late 1940s. It points out the positives, but also the negatives in the development of agricultural cooperative in Slovakia. The number of cooperatives, as well as the area of their farmed land decreased significantly after 1989 and the number of legal entities operating on the land has expanded. In spite of this, however, according to the collected data, it can be stated that in 2018, cooperatives managed 34,25% of agricultural land in Slovakia. Based on the available statistical data on the development of the structure of agricultural cooperatives and on the basis of legal analysis of the legislation, the authors wish to emphasize the merits of the cooperative form of business as well as the advantages of the cooperatives as a separate form of business under current market conditions. The cooperative, as a separated form of business, is still advantageous for all areas of business including the agricultural business. The advantage of a cooperative form of business is highlighted by its flexibility, relative simple and more liberal than other legal form of business.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the oldest EU policy and is one of the supranational areas and policies of the European Union (EU). CAP introduced diverse legal and economic tools for comprehensive and smart restructuralisation of the Slovak agriculture and rural areas. With the purpose to improve the CAP implementation in Slovakia, the project “Effectiveness of Common Agricultural Policy implementation in Slovakia” (CAPE) was prepared and submitted by the Association of Agrarian and Environmental Lawyers. The project was approved by the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency and it has been granted from September 2019 (Decision Nr. 2019–1802/001.001, Project Nr. 611792–EPP–1–2019–1–SK–EPPJMO–SUPPA). The idea to submit project proposal aroused from the need to contribute to improving the Common Agricultural Policy implementation in Slovakia. The main aim of the project is to perform the interdisciplinary research in the field of the effectiveness of CAP implementation in Slovakia with the specific objectives to discuss and advise local, regional, national policymakers and decision–makers on different aspects of the CAP implementation, transfer the research results and the expertise to the practice and to disseminate the project outcomes among interested target groups and civil society.