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Abstract

This research focuses on the life of Cardinal Alfonso Visconti reconstructing the years of his religious formation until his arrival in Rome: from the activity carried out at the Congregation of the Oratory founded by San Filippo Neri, to the diplomatic career conducted in the service of the Holy See. After serving in Portugal and Prague, at the court of Rudolf II, between 1595 and 1598 he was sent on a diplomatic mission, as nuncio, to the Prince of Transylvania Zsigmond Báthory. His mission took place in a dramatic historical phase for Danubian-Balkan Europe, threatened by the power of the Turkish “infidel”.

The article aims to reconstruct the main phases of Visconti’s difficult mission, which had been sent to this peripheral part of the continent, but very important on a geopolitical level, with the aim of creating the anti-Turkish crusade so much desired by Pope Clement VIII

Abstract

In this study we have resumed the problem of Neolithic settlements with a complex architecture (defense systems with ditches, palisades, towers, bastions; residential buildings; cult constructions; social constructions) which support the idea of a proto-urban organization since the PPN. We have analyzed current definitions of cities and fairs, which mainly reflect situations from classical antiquity and the Middle Ages, but they cannot be applied to prehistoric realities, which, according to interdisciplinary research, offer another perspective. We also believe that religion too has played an important part in these sites, some of them being real centers of worship.

Abstract

The present study approaches the subject of the diplomatic relation between Italy and the Soviet Union during 1944 and 1945 beginning with 27th May 1944 when Pietro Quaroni, a career diplomat, presented the credentials of ambassador.

Abstract

The Greek-Catholic and Orthodox Deaneries of Târgu Mureş were part of the ceded territory through The Vienna Arbitration. The economic issues that the two deaneries faced during World War II were complex and varied. The first one was related to the seizure of the majority of the harvest collected on the church territory in the autumn of 1940. The living of the clergy and their families was affected also by the payment delayed until February 1941. Beside all of these, the economical stability was affected, for a longer period of time, by the loss of their lands, which constituted a source for additional revenues, especially for the poorer parishes. Some of the investments in building new churches were in vain. Two churches were demolished by unknown authors during 1941. The economic problems, that the two deaneries faced, have returned to the previous situation after the liberation of the Northern Transylvania.

Abstract

Although the revolutionary outbreak of the Spanish colonies in the Americas was sudden and apparently unplanned it was, in fact, a long process, during which colonial economies underwent growth, societies developed identities, ideas advanced to new positions and Spanish Americans began conscious of their own culture and jealous of their own resources. In Cuba the process of creating a national identity displays similarities with what happened in the former European colonies from the two Americas, turned into independent states but, on the other hand, shows different characteristics that make Cuba an exceptional case among the nations of the New World. A number of factors of different natures, as well as the vicinity of a state that from the second half of XIXth century is paving the way for a great power, helped to keep Cuba in Spanish hands until the end of the XIXth century long after the other colonies of the Spanish empire had fallen to local settler armies elsewhere. This short study aims to illustrate some aspects regarding the historical dynamics in the build up of a Cuban national identity.

Abstract

The present paper explored the Great Union Day which marked the union of Transylvania with Romania from a gender perspective. The Great Union Day is well approached in Romanian historiography yet less is known about women’s presence and reactions to this historical day. We have indeed the figures but they do not reveal the whole range of emotions, reactions of women thus the study focused on these aspects through the analysis of such historical records as memoires, journals, public speeches and official documents.

Abstract

After the end of World War I and the creation of Greater Romania, various actors tried to influence the official policy of the state by proposing political visions suitable to consolidate the Romanian identity and character of the country. The Orthodox Church, one of the most vocal of these actors, envisioned a variety of activities and programs with the goal of promoting the future development of the country alongside religious principles. In particular, in 1925 the Metropolitan of Ardeal organized the first “mass” pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the history of the Romanian people. Among the participants was Iosif Trifa, a close collaborator of the Metropolitan and the initiator and organizer of a widespread spiritual movement called the Army of the Lord. During the pilgrimage Trifa wrote notes that later constituted the basis of his travelogue Pe urmele Mântuitorului [In the Footsteps of the Savior], a book that, I will suggest, proposes a national – spiritual model for the building of the new political project inspired by the mythical image of the holy places. Trifa vested these pastoral concerns with political preoccupations that ultimately claimed the Holy Land as an ideal pattern for Greater Romania. Through a gradual literary process that morphed Palestine into the Christian Holy Land and reclaimed it for Orthodox Christians only, Trifa established a close connection between the holy sites and Romania by presenting the group of pilgrims and their itinerary as a symbol of the nation walking in the footsteps of Jesus Christ. A close reading of the narrative will show that Trifa aimed at using it as an exhortation to prompt Romanians’ commitment to Orthodoxy as the only successful solution to the national project.