Microstructure of austenitic stainless steel is primarily monophasic, i.e. austenitic. However, precipitation of the δ-ferrite in the austenite matrix is possible depending on the chemical composition of steel. δ-Ferrite is stable on room temperature but it transforms into σ-phase, carbides and austenite during heat treatment. In this work, the results of analysis of influence of temperature and time on decomposition of δ-ferrite are presented. Magnetic induction method, microstructure and hardness analyses were used for testing the degree of decomposition of the δ-ferrite. Analysis of results showed that increase in temperature and time increases the degree of decomposition of δ-ferrite.
Primary, secondary and accessory minerals in tonalitic rocks from Iwo region of the Precambrian Basement Complex of Southwestern Nigeria were identified and analysed with the aim of determining the various processes involved during the crystallisation of magma. Thin sections of tonalite were prepared and studied with the aid of a petrographic microscope. The mineral assemblages observed are biotite, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar, amphiboles, pyroxene, quartz, muscovite and chlorite. Allanite, titanite, apatite and zircon occur as accessory minerals. Muscovite and chlorite are found to be secondary minerals. The mineral allanite has a characteristic form of zoning and shows evidence of metamictisation, and is surrounded by dark-coloured biotite having radioactive haloes. Titanite is anhedral to subhedral crystals and forms reaction rim round opaque minerals. Plagioclase shows evidence of compositional zoning as well as plastic deformation of the twin lamellae. The allanite observed is primary in nature and has undergone radioactive disintegration; chlorite and muscovite are formed by secondary processes of chloritization and sericitisation, respectively. The tonalite is formed as a result of rapid cooling of magma close to the Earth's surface.
In this article, we report the mineral chemistry and petrographic features of charnockitic exposure of Iboropa within Precambrian Basement Complex of Nigeria. The mineral assemblages are pyroxene, plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, alkali feldspars, microperthite, quartz and ilmenite, with apatite occurring as accessory mineral. Apatite occurs in abundance as euhedral crystals. Orthopyroxene observed is strongly pleochroic and has numerous microfractures, and it is hypersthene (En45Fs54Wo1) with low TiO2 and MnO, having extremely low percentage of CaO. Hypersthene is mantled by a complex corona of amphibole, and the amphibole is hornblende with a chemical formula: (K,Na)(Ca,Fe)2 (Fe,Mg,Al,Ti)5(Al,Si)8O22(OH)2. Plagioclase occurs as inclusions in both pyroxene and biotite. Biotite has high concentration of TiO2 and extremely low CaO. The opaque mineral observed is ilmenite and it is concentrated around hypersthene and amphibole. Rare earth element (REE) displays negative Eu anomaly with enrichment of light REE over heavy REE. Amphiboles surrounding orthopyroxene are evidences of retrograde reactions and are formed at the expense of orthopyroxene reacting with plagioclase and quartz in the presence of fluid. The relationship between the mineral assemblages suggests the retrogression of the gneiss that might be as a result of rehydration process, and it is a transition from granulite facies to amphibolite facies during a retrogressive form of metamorphism.
Subsurface information on source rock potential of the Eocene shale unit of the Abakaliki Fold Belt is limited and has not been widely discussed. The total organic carbon (TOC) content and results of rock-eval pyrolysis for nine shale samples, as well as the one-dimensional (1D) geochemical model, from an exploration well in the Abakaliki Fold Belt were used to evaluate the source rock potentials and timing of hydrocarbon generation of Lower Eocene source rocks. The TOC content values of all the samples exceeded the minimum threshold value of 0.5 wt.% required for potential source rocks. A pseudo-Van Krevelen plot for the shale samples indicated Type II–III organic matter capable of generating gaseous hydrocarbon at thermally mature subsurface levels. The 1D burial model suggests that the Eocene source rock is capable of generating oil and gas at the present time. The modelled transformation ratio trend indicates that a fair amount of hydrocarbon has been expelled from the source rocks. The results of this study indicate that the Eocene source units may have charged the overlying thin Eocene sand bodies of the Abakaliki Fold Belt.
The study integrates geophysical and geotechnical methods for subsoil evaluation and shallow foundation design. The study involved six vertical electrical sounding and geotechnical investigation involving cone penetration test and laboratory soil analysis. Three major geologic units were delineated; the topsoil, weathered layer and partly weathered/fractured/fresh bedrock. The overburden thickness is in between 15.2–32.9 m. Based on resistivity (16–890 ohm-m) and thickness (12.7–32 m) the weathered layer is competent to distribute structural load to underlying soil/rock. The groundwater level varies from 4.5 to 12.3 m. Therefore an average allowable bearing capacity of 200 kPa is recommended and would be appropriate for design of shallow foundation in the area, at a depth not less than 1.0 m with an expected settlement ranging from 9.03–48.20 mm. The ultimate bearing and allowable bearing capacity for depth levels of 1–3 m vary from 1403–2666 kPa and 468–889 kPa for strip footing while square footing varies in between 1956–3489 kPa and 652–1163 kPa respectively.
In this article, we have investigated a fitting proposal model for calculating the crystallite size of pure NiO thin films by varying the structural parameters, such as full width at half-maximum β, lattice parameter a and differences in a − a0. The experimental data of NiO thin films were prepared at several deposition temperatures in the range of 380–460°C. All estimated values of crystallite sizes are proportional to the experimental data. Thus, the measurement of the crystallite size values by this proposed model is compatible with practical measurements qualitative.
Ureje Dam, Ado-Ekiti has witnessed drastic reduction in the water storage capacity of its reservoir. It became imperative to determine the possible cause(s) of the reduction in storage capacity. Geophysical investigation involving the vertical electrical sounding technique of the electrical resistivity method was conducted in the upstream part of the dam. Five lithologic units that include the mud/suspended materials, such as sandy clay, clay, weathered/fractured bedrock and fresh bedrock, were delineated. The respective resistivity and thickness range of the units are 2–19 ohm-m; 147–206 ohm-m, 2–38 ohm-m; 47–236 ohm-m and 455–1516 ohm-m and 0.4–1.9 m; 0.5–2.5 m; 1.0–12.2 m; 7.3–16.4 m and ∞. The thickness of suspended materials, resistivity/thickness of weathered layer and the presence of near-surface impervious layer were used as the main indices for the spatial demarcation of the dam axis in terms of vulnerability to loss of impounded water. Using the cumulative response of the indices, the study concluded that the eastern to southeastern parts of the dam axis showed the highest indications of vulnerability to loss of impounded water.
The article presents the grain size distribution of soil samples from the Precambrian basement within the purview of the textural properties, deduced transportation history and the numerical assessments using statistical parameters. The fourteen soil samples collected from the study area were subjected to sieve analysis in the laboratory for the determination of their grain size distribution. The statistical parameters’ study includes the graphic mean, skewness, sorting and kurtosis. The result of the analysis of the soil samples ranged from coarse to fine-grained samples, moderately and poorly sorted, positively and negatively skewed and the kurtosis also shows leptokurtic as the most dominant which suggests the samples poorly distributed and moderately sorted at the centre of the grain size distribution. These results also suggest the geological environment of the soil samples could be responsible for the poorly and moderately sorted exhibited by the samples deposited in the location.
Lithium additions to Al offer the promise of substantially reducing the weight of alloys, since each 1 wt. % Li added to Al reduces density by 3 % and increases elastic modulus. In the present work, the effect of 1.46 wt. % Li addition to AlSi7Mg (containing 7.05 wt. % Si and 0.35 wt. % Mg) was studied. The alloy showed reduced density and higher hardness after natural ageing. Experimental work showed that micro-structural and mechanical properties changed with Li addition. It was observed that 0.80 wt. % Li addition resulted in formation of new phase AlLiSi which has a great effect to increase hardness of AlSi7Mg. According to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis it was confirmed that the addition of Li causes formation of different phases which are: α-Al, β-Si and AlLiSi.