In Poland, the cadastre is the basic register which is the source of information on cadastral entities and their property. Therefore, it should constitute a reliable source of information in the scope of establishing the range of law, its nature, but also the subject of its ownership. However, it is necessary to be able to not only check the current information on the legal status and its scope, but also review past statuses or determine the rights that will influence real estate in the future. The cadastre and related rights are changing very dynamically over time, and each state has a very strict reference to the previous state. Therefore, in order to manage real estate in the most effective way, it is necessary to record temporal attributes of cadastre objects.
The main objective of this paper is to define the legal issues related to the possibility of registration at the time of creation or modification of object in the Polish cadastre. This paper includes analyses of both Polish legal regulations and European standards and norms. Moreover, the article presents the results of comparative analyses concerning the data model of cadastre and INSPIRE and Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) data models for the theme cadastral parcel in terms of temporal aspect.
Stereo photogrammetry has been used in this study to analyse and detect movements within the Lecture theater of School of Environmental Technology of Federal University of Technology Minna via the use of Kalman filter algorithm. The essential steps for implementation of this method are herein highlighted and results obtained indicate Ins. Mov.s (velocity) ranging from ±0.0000001 m/epoch to ±0.000007 m/epoch with greater movements noticed in the horizontal direction than in the vertical direction of the building. Because the observed movements were insignificant, the building has been classified as stable. However, a longer period of observation with a bi-monthly observational interval has been recommended to enable decision on the rate of rise/sink and deformation of the building.
This article presents a comprehensive analysis of changes in urban development (including certain types of public buildings) and changes in the routes of Lviv’s tram lines over the last 80 years, related to the territorial and demographic development of the city. For this purpose, maps comparing these elements of urban infrastructure between 1932 and 2016 were developed. The analysis was carried out based on a plan of Lviv from 1932, contemporary vector data taken from OpenStreetMap, ArcGIS basemaps, Google Street View panoramic images, information contained in interwar Lviv guides, and supplementary information from other sources.
In the modern world of mass information being reduced to colourful images, maps have the chance to become a medium that transmits important information in an attractive format. Due to time pressure, many cartographic publications that have a short life span on the internet contain a lot of methodological errors. Viewers receive an image that is hard to interpret, incomplete or even incorrect. The author aims to summarize and classify the cartographic content of social media, while bearing methodology, the role of the cartographer and users’ reactions to that content in mind. The springboard to online discussion is mainly a map topic. Their design or methodology is of little interest in most cases. This may be due to insufficient knowledge of how forms (their correctness and quality) shape messages. Hence the role of the cartographer is important, what can be seen – among methodological remarks – as one of conclusions. It seems that map-makers are becoming more expert, and are guiding map lovers and amateur cartographers towards creating good, effective and elegant maps.
The aim of the study presented in this article is to identify and analyse the problems which arise when creating a 3D model based on two-dimensional data and its import into a game engine and then developing algorithms to automate this process. The authors decided that they would use the Unity game engine to create an application presenting the results of modelling the interior of the Main Building of the Warsaw University of Technology. The work was divided into stages in which problems related to the adopted method were identified and the automation of selected activities was suggested. The main tasks performed during the study included processing the source data into a 3D model along with the correction of errors made during this process, detailing the model by adding characteristic elements of the building’s interior, and creating the so-called game scene in the Unity game engine along with the implementation of the application’s behaviour. The developed software can be integrated with indoor navigation systems, and the implemented scripts can be used during the preparation of other models.
The article presents an original optical system to measure displacements across joints or cracks in building structures. It describes the concept of system operation, algorithms to be followed and results of practical tests that have been performed.
The proposed solution is based on digital photos taken with a non-metric digital camera, modified by defining its internal orientation elements and correction of lens distortion during calibration, constituting the measurement instrument registering the pictures of markers. QR (Quick Response) codes are proposed to be the markers. Being digitally processed, a set of registered images allow visualising the measured size of occurred displacements.
Owing to this solution, it is possible to obtain data on a mutual position of two or more QR codes in the form of translation elements in 3D space and appropriate three orientation angles. Appointed elements are unequivocal in spatial interpretation and not limited by dimension.
As the tests performed by the authors show, the results are more than satisfactory. The proposed measurement technology is an objective system of data acquisition, suitable for automating the whole monitoring process of displacements of building structure elements concerning joints and cracks.
Exchange of and access to spatial data is the principal goal of any Spatial Data Infrastructure, therefore, one of the key concepts of SDI is interoperability, especially semantic and syntactic. Whereas application schemas and quality issues are one of the aspects that have to be considered to ensure a successful data interchange in SDI.
Two types of application schema are widely used in the European SDI as well as in the Polish SDI. They cover both semantic and syntactic interoperability and are an integral parts of spatial data specifications and relevant regulations in the form of data models. However, working out accurate and correct application schemas may be a challenge.
Additionally, faulty or too complex application schemas can influence the ability for valid data interchange, and consequently, prevent achieving interoperability within SDI. Therefore, the capability to examine and estimate the UML and GML application schemas quality seems to be a worthwhile and important issue in the context of semantic and syntactic interoperability in SDI.
The main subject of this article it to set out the context of performed studies, among others, the role of application schema in the interoperable data exchange, issues related to the concept of quality and its measures.
A geoid or quasigeoid model allows the integration of satellite measurements with ground levelling measurements in valid height systems. A precise quasigeoid model has been developed for the city of Krakow. One of the goals of the model construction was to provide a more detailed quasigeoid course than the one offered by the national model PL-geoid2011. Only four measurement points in the area of Kraków were used to build a national quasigeoid model. It can be assumed that due to the small number of points and their uneven distribution over the city area, the quasigeoid can be determined less accurately. It became the reason for developing a local quasigeoid model based on a larger number of evenly distributed points. The quasigeoid model was based on 66 evenly distributed points (from 2.5 km to 5.0 km apart) in the study area. The process of modelling the quasigeoid used height anomalies determined at these points on the basis of normal heights derived through levelling and ellipsoidal heights derived through GNSS surveys. Height anomalies coming from the global geopotential model EGM2008 served as a long-wavelength trend in those derived from surveys. Analyses showed that the developed height anomaly model fits the empirical data at the level of single millimetres – mean absolute difference 0.005 m. The developed local model QuasigeoidKR2019, similar to the national model PL-geoid2011, are models closely related to the reference and height systems in Poland. Such models are used to integrate GNSS and levelling observations. A comparison of the local QuasigeoidKR2019 and national PL-geoid2011 model was made for the reference frame PL-ETRF2000 and height datum PL-KRON86-NH. The comparison of the two models with respect to GNSS/levelling height anomalies shows a triple reduction in the values of individual quartiles and a mean absolute difference for the developed local model. These summary statistics clearly indicate that the accuracy of the local model for the city of Krakow is significantly higher than that of the national one.
The subject of the considerations presented in the article is the question of the criteria according to which the comparables, in the market value estimating process, should be selected. As the most important in the selection of comparative properties, the factor of similarity in relation to the subject property (measured by the Euclidean distance) was considered. As the key issue, the similarity assessment criterion and the influence of the adopted critical value of this criterion on the accuracy of estimates were chosen. The analysis of the above was carried out with taking into account the role of the significance of independent variables (measured by their correlation with the vector of the dependent variable). The results of the simulation tests carried out in the variants set by the criteria adopted were presented. On this basis, it has been shown that there is a potential most relevant solution in the collection of obtainable estimation results. This solution corresponds with the smallest sum of the differences of model prices (accepted as known) and corresponding estimates. The found minimum occurs for a specific layout of the above criterion values only.
The author’s aim is to reflect on the cartographic modelling of historical borders based on the example of the series “Historical Atlas of Poland. Detailed maps of the 16th century” (HAP). HAP presents secular (state, palatinate, district) and religious borders (dioceses, archdeaconry, deanery, parish). The belonging of historic settlements to administrative units is determined on the basis of written sources. During work on the current volumes of HAP, the borders were reconstructed through their manual interpolation (the so-called linear model). Digital tools enable the automatic generation of administrative units based on settlements in point geometry (Thiessen polygons) or the use of modern divisions (precincts [obręby ewidencyjne]) as a reference to them (semi-automatic method). The article compares and assesses the three mentioned methods of determining historical borders and the possibilities of harmonizing them in relation to contemporary administrative divisions. The source material consisted of 18,357 settlements from the volumes of HAP published so far and 235 parishes for detailed analyses. Precincts were adopted as reference areas due to the possibilities of data harmonization.