A mathematical model of the error of the navigational accelerometer caused by the nonlinearity of its metrological model, taking into account the influence of vibration, was developed. The method of experimental estimation of the vibration error based on the developed model was proposed. The main idea of the method is to evaluate parameters of the developed model during static tests in the terrestrial gravitational field and to calculate error according to the specific vibration characteristics – the amplitude in the case of harmonic vibration profile or the frequency band and the power spectral density in the case of random vibration. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been tested using three types of navigation accelerometers in comparison with the results of classical dynamic testing in various vibration conditions (harmonic, white noise, etc.).
In traditional air taxi model, flight route and timing are assigned to every order individually, resulting in minimum utilization of seats, maximum number of empty legs and elevated price levels. Sharing flights, when possible, allow decreasing number of empty seats and distributing cost of flight among customers. Challenges to overcome are varying timing needs of customers and volatility of demand. This article investigates possibilities of synchronizing passenger orders. The proposed passenger pooling model replaces specific flight timing on order with constraints: latest arrival and earliest departure to provide room for coordination of orders, backed by web-based ICT. Theoretical test cases calculations verify the concept and compare it with traditional full on-demand and scheduled operations.
Numerical studies on detonation wave propagation in rotating detonation engine and its propulsive performance with one- and multi-step chemistries of a hydrogen-based mixture are presented. The computational codes were developed based on the three-dimensional Euler equations coupled with source terms that incorporate high-temperature chemical reactions. The governing equations were discretized using Roe scheme-based finite volume method for spatial terms and second-order Runge-Kutta method for temporal terms. One-dimensional detonation simulations with one- and multi-step chemistries of a hydrogen-air mixture were performed to verify the computational codes and chemical mechanisms. In two-dimensional simulations, detonation waves rotating in a rectangular chamber were investigated to understand its flowfield characteristics, where the detailed flowfield structure observed in the experiments was successfully captured. Three-dimensional simulations of two-waved rotating detonation engine with an annular chamber were performed to evaluate its propulsive performance in the form of thrust and specific impulse. It was shown that rotating detonation engine produced constant thrust after the flowfield in the chamber was stabilized, which is a major difference from pulse detonation engine that generates repetitive and intermittent thrust.
In connection with increasing intensification of the working process in a gas turbine engine and increasing requirements for economy, the problem of defining and monitoring the main parts lifetime is becoming more vital. Modern algorithms of the monitoring systems are based on taking into account the levels of part temperature and total equivalent stress throughout the flight cycle. Thermal and stress-strain states of the critical zones of the main parts are determined on the basis of information received from the sensors installed in the engine gas path. Turbine disks are located in the internal cavities of the engine and are cooled by air from the compressor. However, in some designs, the disk cavity can be separated from the place of cooling air bleed by several stages of non-contact labyrinth seals, which will lead to some delay in changing the parameters of the cooling air flow when changing the engine operating mode. It has been observed that if this situation is not taken into account, it can lead to significant errors (more than 40%) in determining the lifetime for the peripheral zone of the disk. At the same time, this error is minimal for the hub and the middle zone of the disk, and the existing monitoring algorithms can be used.
The paper deals with the uncertainty of the operated system’s possible states hybrid combined optional functions. Traditionally, the probabilities of the system’s possible states are treated as the reliability measures. However, in the framework of the proposed doctrine, the optimality (for example, the maximal probability of the system’s state) is determined based upon a plausible assumption of the intrinsic objectively existing parameters. The two entropy theory wings consider on one hand the subjective preferences functions in subjective analysis, concerning the multi-alternativeness of the operational situation at an individual’s choice problems, and on the other hand the objectively existing characteristics used in theoretical physics. The discussed in the paper entropy paradigm proceeds with the objectively presented phenomena of the state’s probability and the probability’s maximum. The theoretical speculations and mathematical derivations are illustrated with the necessary plotted diagrams.
Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopters facilitate the rapid transport of patients to large hospitals. The requirements of the space around the helipad and the safety of flight operations mean that hospitals closer to city centers create more elevated helipads than ground-based helipads. The helipads can vary in the way they are constructed and located - depending on the possibilities offered by hospital buildings and their surroundings.
Vibroacoustics Laboratory of the Institute of Aviation measured the vibration properties of some elevated helipads. The goal of this research was to determine the vibration properties of the helipads itself and the transmission of vibrations to the construction of the helipads, the building and its equipment caused by the landing and taking-off of a helicopter.
This article presents some of the results of measurements of vibrations of steel constructed elevated helipads with the use of a modal hammer and while landing and taking-off of a helicopter, as well as comparison of the vibration properties concerning various elevated concrete helipads.
Aircraft, their assemblies, and units must provide high durability and reliability, and maintain mechanical and technological characteristics throughout the life span of the aircraft. Different elements of aircraft structures work under mechanical loads, over a wide temperature range, with varying degrees of exposure to corrosive environments. Aircraft structural materials have a variation in the characteristics values and require the various testing methods for their inspection.
In many NDT methods applied in aviation materials testing, signals that could be represented by a narrowband processes model are used. Known methods of their processing are focused on determining and analyzing the signals amplitude characteristics, but the information resource contained in phase characteristics is not used.
In the article, the methodology for signal processing and determining phase characteristics in the time domain are discussed. It is based on the combination of the discrete Hilbert transform and the deterministic and statistical methods of the phase measurement. There are given examples of the application of the methodology for pulsed eddy current testing of electrically conductive materials and products, ultrasonic thickness measurement of products made of materials have significant ultrasonic attenuation, the realization impulse variant of acoustic impedance flaw detection of products made of composite materials. The examples have shown that the proposed signal processing methodology enables to determine new information parameters and signal characteristics for the industry, and extend the scope of known NDT methods.
In paper the issue of a rocket flight impact and overall survivability of such flight by Apis mellifera (western honeybees) specimens is raised. Author claims that it is the key for using them on Mars for pollination in future, as this species is considered as one of the best pollinators, and should be examined before sending first human missions to the Red Planet. Rocket payload ‘BeeO!Logical’ was designed in order to conduct the research, the first of its kind worldwide. Its assumptions are presented along with overall descriptions of the experiments in two sounding rockets. Analysed data included survivability, carbon dioxide concentration values (respiration levels), temperature and humidity. It has been shown that A. mellifera specimens are able to survive the rocket flight. Project development possibilities are described, including widening the scope of the research with bumblebees (Bombus) and implementation of biocybernetic model of bee colony.
Efficiency is a crucial parameter for an airplane to reduce both cost of operations and emission of pollutants. There are several airplane concepts that potentially allow for increasing the efficiency. A few of them were not investigated thoroughly enough yet. The inverted joined wing configuration, with the upper wing in front of the lower one is an example of such concept. Therefore, a project consisting of development of an experimental scaled demonstrator, and its wind tunnel and flight testing, was undertaken by consortium: Institute of Aviation, Warsaw University of Technology, Air Force Institute of Technology and a MSP company. Results led to a conclusion, that the inverted joined wing configuration allows to build an airplane with excellent performance, but its advantage against the conventional airplane is marginal because of large trimming drag of the configuration with relatively high position of the thrust vector in pusher configuration. It was applied because the demonstrator was a flying model of manned airplane and the tractor configuration would affect the pilot’s field of observation. However, in case of the UAV, this reason becomes insignificant. Therefore two configurations of tractor propulsion were tested to see, if their performance is better than the performance of original design.
Eddy current (EC) method is considered as most applicable for in-service detection of fatigue subsurface cracks initiated in aircraft multilayer structures near the rivet holes. At the same time, the successful solution of this problem is obstructed by additional noise created by defect-free rivets. All EC inspection techniques for the detection of subsurface cracks around the rivets can be classified into three main groups: 1) static mode – carried out by placing the EC probe concentrically on the rivet head; 2) rotational mode – when the EC probe is rotated around the rivet axle and 2) sliding mode – performed by the movement of EC probe along the rivet line or near it. All these approaches have some advantages and limitations. In this study, known EC techniques for the detection of cracks in multilayer aircraft structures are analyzed. New advanced EC techniques for the detection of fatigue cracks in internal layers of the riveted structures based on different types (ring, sliding, and rotational) probes are presented. The static EC method with developed low-height ring-type probe creates the possibility to detect cracks in the difficult of access areas. The possibility to estimate the length of detected cracks by a ring-type probe is shown. The proposed rotational remote field EC probe can detect as small as 1.0 mm long cracks under the button-head rivet and 2 mm thick upper skin with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, in many aircraft structures, fatigue cracks will be detected before a critical threshold achieved. New EC sliding techniques based on remote field and double differential probes were proposed for the rapid detection of cracks in internal layers of riveted aircraft structures. Remote-field EC probe for reliable detection of fatigue cracks in third and fourth layers of five-layer units was proposed. Another sliding technique based on a double differential EC probe gives the possibility to detect transverse cracks in the second layer without the rivet row area access. The main advantage of developed techniques is high inspection reliability due to the possibility to discriminate the signals created by cracks and defect-free rivets. Presented inspection procedures include the selective signal analysis in the complex plane diagram. Proposed EC inspection techniques were successfully implemented into the aircraft maintenance practice.