The study investigates the effect of informal sector tax proceeds on capital development in Lagos Metropolis. The study adopted Ex-post facto design to obtain secondary data, covering 20 years (2000–2019) from the Lagos State Internal Revenue Service and the Ministry of Budget and Planning. All the series were tested for normalities to determine the appropriateness of Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression. The results of the study revealed that tax collected from the association, petty traders, and market men and women had a significant effect on capital development in Lagos Metropolis. It is evident from the monumental capital projects being executed by the government in the Metropolis. The study recommends that the government should not only create an enabling environment for the informal sector to thrive but also give all necessary support for its survival because the sector has contributed to the capital development of the Metropolis through tax revenue.
We examine the impact of the macroeconomic determinants of foreign direct investment inflows. We also investigate the moderating role of sanctions in FDI inflows into Iran. The results reveal that macro determinants such as infrastructure, exchange rate, inflation rate, investment return, and governance have a long-run effect on FDI inflows in Iran. Our findings also show that GDP growth rate and trade openness have no significant effect on FDI. Our results indicate that sanctions do not have a significant moderating role in the relationship between macroeconomic factors and FDI. Surprisingly, international sanctions have a positive relationship with FDI inflows in Iran. Furthermore, sanctions have a positive impact on the inflation rate and exchange rate in Iran. Finally, our findings show that sanctions have had a significant impact on Iran’s economic growth in recent years due to increasing the severity level of sanctions.
The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between government revenues and the economic growth of Nigeria. The study employs exploratory and ex-post facto research designs while using secondary form of data spanning from 1981 to 2018 collected from the Federal Inland Revenue Services (FIRS), National Bureau of Statistics and CBN statistical bulletin. The relationship is tested by using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression technique. The result reveals that federally received revenue and Value Added Tax (VAT) have a moderate positive relationship with the economic growth. The study provides evidence that there is a need for the government to formulate relevant revenue policies that will boost government income in order to have more favourable implication on the economy.
In this article we investigate the correlation between the attitude toward education and the subjective social status of the students. We used a previously validated questionnaire to measure the attitude toward education and the MacArthur Scale of subjective social status capturing first, personal familial placement within society and secondly, personal placement in the school environment. This questionnaire was distributed online and was completed by 185 respondents from different schools and universities. The data was analyzed in R, performing factor analysis and a structural equation model. 4 latent factors were identified, that influence the formation of the attitude toward education, namely a general factor, usefulness of education, benefits of education and dislike of education. Only the second part of the scale influence 2 latent factors-general factor and usefulness of education. These results suggest that students positioning themselves higher in school or university have a better attitude toward education and are more prone to appreciate educational process and outcomes.
Foreign direct investment and Trade were regarded as an important elements in enhancing economic development. This study used some time series econometric tests including the Augmented Dickey – Fuller (ADF) unit root test developed by Dickey – Fuller, stationary test developed by Kwiatkowski-Philips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS), Johansen co-integration test and Granger causality test to analyse the connection between foreign direct investment, trade and economic growth in Niger. The tests results showed a bilateral relationship between trade and economic growth and a unidirectional causal relationship between trade and foreign direct investment with direction from trade to foreign direct investment. The long run effect tests revealed that trade has a positive effect on economic growth while foreign direct investment has a negative effect on economic growth in Niger. On average, ceteris paribus, the coefficients are statistically significant at 5% level.
This paper advances in the detection of anomalous data in income reports of Argentina. In particular, income declared by households surveyed in the Encuesta Permanente de Hogares (EPH, Permanent Household Survey in English) -for the period 2003-2017- and in the Encuesta Anual de Hogares Urbanos (EAHU, Annual Urban Household Survey in English) -for the period 2010-2014- are analyzed.
A widely known technique in forensic accounting and auditing, such as Benford’s law -also known as the first digit law- is used. If the analyzed data were generated naturally-free of manipulation- it should follow the logarithmic distribution of Benford. The Chi-square test and the absolute mean deviation (MAD) are used for verification.
The results suggest that the income reported in the EPH does not follow the Benford distribution and the degree of compliance with this law decreases significantly between 2007-2015 coinciding with the intervention period of the Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos (INDEC, National Institute of Statistics and Censuses in English).
Financial accounting information plays an important role in assessing and forecasting firms’ financial performance. But besides that, there are other external factors affecting the performance of firms, such as economic and financial crises, which cause imbalances over the economy and affects the business environment. Thus, based on financial statements data, in this paper, the determinants of financial performance are examined, and the impact of a financial crisis on these factors is analyzed, using the fixed and random effects panel estimators. A sample of non-financial firms from European countries considering annual data for the period of 2006 to 2015 was used for this research. The results achieved by panel data analysis show that a crisis exerts a significant positive effect over financial performance as well as liquidity, assets turnover, and labor productivity, meaning that firms tend to put in greater efforts to maintain financial performance in the face of a crisis. Financial performance is significantly and negatively influenced by leverage independently of the crisis effect, showing return on assets to be lower than the average interest rate.
This article provides empirical evidence that the demand for ethyl alcohol in Lithuania is price elastic and the root cause of this elasticity is the competition between Lithuanian and Polish sellers. The basis for the emergence of competition lies in the price differences between the countries, which arise as a direct consequence of the Lithuanian government’s policy in the alcohol sector, which is directed towards reckless increases in excise duties. The increase in Lithuanian excise duties leads to a wider price gap between countries and in the first months after the increase results increases in prices. In subsequent months, Lithuanian importers and manufacturers tend to revise the assortment and costs, replacing more expensive goods with cheaper ones or slightly alter the markups. These changes are the main reason why demand in the domestic market gradually recovers. The price elasticity of demand predetermines the gradual recovery of the ethyl alcohol market, but each increase in excise duty reduces the manufacturers’ markups and (or) leads to the changes in product range, where higher-costs products are displaced by lower-cost products.
The impact of external and internal factors on organization of operation at company level is studied. The necessity for implementing strategic management of innovation processes at company level is substantiated. The structural interactions of external and internal factors on the organization of company operation are determined; a classification of factors of external and internal environment in the context of strategic management of innovation processes at company level is constructed.