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Summary

Food and nutritional (in)security remain an important matter of concern, especially in developing countries. Despite the efforts to enhance food security among smallholder soybean households, the proportion of the undernourished population in Butere Sub-County still remains high for unknown reasons. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of food security among smallholder soybean households in Butere Sub-County, Kenya. The study adopted the exploratory research design. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select a sample of 201 respondents. Cross-sectional data were gathered through face-to-face interviews using pretested semi-structured questionnaires and analyzed using ordered logistic regression model. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale was used to measure and categorize the soybean household food (in)security status. The results revealed that the household food (in)security status differed across soybean households and was greatly influenced by an interplay of socio-economic, market, and institutional factors. Age of the household head negatively influenced food security, whereas the level of soybean commercialization, education, livestock units, network density, extension visits, and credit access were positively associated with household food security. The study recommends policy interventions that seek to ensure intensive literacy development, frequent extension and training, improved access to credit, and reinvestment in productive assets or inputs for increased production, commercialization and food security. Strengthening of social ties and increased allocation to safety net programs for the aged, vulnerable, and resource-poor households are also recommended.

Abstract

Social entrepreneurship is important tool in eliminating regional disparities, inclusion of socially excluded people into society, overall improvement of the quality of life and much more. This paper aims to analyse the development of municipal social entrepreneurship in the conditions of the Banská Bystrica self-governing region, where some of the less developed districts are located. The main sources of research were questionnaire realized among local government representatives, plan of the economic and social development of the district and statistical data. In the article, there were many indicators examined, such as quantity of the municipal social enterprises, its activities, support or barriers of its development. The results points to fact that only 7% of the participants of research own municipal social enterprise. The most common barrier to establish and manage these enterprises is inadequate knowledge of the relevant legislation.

Abstract

The act of sexual violence is a crime that is classified as a violation of human rights (HAM). The increase number of sexual violence cases in the world, including Indonesia, shows that the current justice system is unable to guarantee justice for victims, and most importantly recovery for victims. For this reason, a justice restoration approach is needed as an alternative in law enforcement against sexual crimes. Practically, marriage used as a way to approach justice restoration. This article used normative and juridical approach to discuss law enforcement on sexual crimes through restorative justice approach. It can be concluded that law enforcement on sexual crimes should observe based on criminology, victimology and ontology aspects, in order to be able to place the problem objectively. As a complaint offense, sexual crimes may not be passed on to criminal process, if there is peace between the victim and the perpetrator, provided that there is an agreement among the victim, perpetrator, family and society without coercion from various parties. The main focus in restorative justice of sexual crimes is to provide protection and assistance to victims from various parties, thus, the victims can be released from trauma or psychological impact that caused by sexual violence experienced by the victim or the impact received after the occurrence of sexual crime.

Summary

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has been the subject of a number of studies and has been described by many authors as a legume with low nitrogen fixing potential compared to other legume species. The first objective of this study is to assess the development and growth of P. vulgaris L. var. Djedida and its yield at different developmental stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting), in the presence and absence of nitrogen fertilizer (Urea 46) in an arid climate and in a soil containing high level of CaCO3 and assimilable phosphorus. The second objective is to carry out a survey on nodulation, number of spores and mycorrhizal infection under these conditions. The results showed that the nitrogen fertilizer amendment is mainly significant (p< 0.0001) for various morphological parameters. Indeed, great improvement was observed on the majority of the morphological parameters with considerable percentages. However, no significant effect was reported for the roots length. In addition, a negligible number of nodules were obtained in the plot without fertilization and no significant effect on the number of spores was recorded. Furthermore, the effect of fertilization on the arbuscular intensity (a%, A%) and on mycorrhizal colonization (M%, m%) of the roots was found to be significant. The soil in the arid region of Biskra showed significant mycorrhizogenic potential, although the conditions in this region were not very favorable for their development, which could constitute an effective biological resource to improve the tolerance of host plants to biotic and abiotic constraints.

Summary

The study assessed coping strategies adopted during economic recession by male and female members of rural households in Osun State, Nigeria. The study specifically examined the perceived causes of economic recession, investigated the perceived effects and identified the coping strategies adopted by the male and female members of the rural households during economic recession and their level of adoption. A multistage procedure was used to select 120 respondents from 6 local Government Areas of the State. An interview schedule was used to collect data from the respondents. The collected data were analysed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, means and independent T-test analysis. The mean ages of the male and female respondents were 45.2 ± 14.1 years and 37 ± 12.6 years respectively. The majority of the males (78.3%) and females (80%) were married with the mean household size of 7 ± 3 people for the male and 6 ± 2 for the female respondents. The cause of economic recession mostly perceived by the male and female respondents was poor economic planning (mean=3.87, 3.77), while prioritizing spending (mean=2.80, 2.52) was the most adopted strategy by both males and females. No significant difference was found in the effects of economic recession on the male and female respondents (t = -0.19; p >0.05) and likewise no significant difference was found in their economic recession coping strategies (t=0.115; p ≥ 0.05). The study concluded that there was no significant difference in the economic recession coping strategies between the male and female members of rural households in the study area.

Summary

The study assessed the gender involvement of sedentary Fulani in dairy farming practices in Osun State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 256 respondents from 12 Local Government Areas (LGAs) inhabited by the sedentary Fulani in the study area. Interview schedules were used for quantitative data collection. Data were analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, means and standard deviations while one-way ANOVA was used to draw inferences on the hypothesis. The results showed that the mean age of the male and female respondents was 34.05 ± 12.49 years and 33.33 ± 13.14 years respectively. The majority of the male (85.9 %) and female (89.8 %) respondents had no formal education. The mean herd size of male and female respondents was 20 ± 2 and 5 ± 2 heads of cattle respectively. All of the male respondents indicated that fencing, grazing and milking were male gender roles, while all female respondents indicated that cleaning of pens, sales of milk/milk products and processing of milk were female gender roles. The study showed that 42.7% of the male and10.2% of the female respondents had high level of involvement in dairy farming activities, while 24.7% of the male and 44.2% of the female respondents had low level of involvement. Further results revealed that there were significant differences (F = 312.80) between the male and female respondents in their involvement in dairy farming practice. The study concluded that there is gender gap in male and female involvement in dairy farming practices.

Summary

The purpose of this study is to examine socioeconomic factors influencing the participation of households in the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme and estimate the programme’s impact on the poverty status of rural households in Edo and Ondo States, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select three hundred and twenty respondents across CBNRM participating and non-participating households. Data were collected according to socioeconomic criteria such as the expenditure on food and non-food items and the CBNRM participation status of the respondents surveyed. The endogenous switching regression model was used as an analytical tool. The following factors were found to exert significant influence on the participation of households in the CBNRM programme: year of schooling (p<0.05), membership in associations (p<0.05), value of disposable assets (p<0.1) and value of household’s food expenditure (p<0.05). A coefficient of correlation of 0.1625, obtained for the CBNRM participants, indicates that the CBNRM participants have higher per capita consumption expenditure than a random household by N1,369.17. The present study unequivocally demonstrated that participation in the CBNRM programme increased the per capita expenditure of the households considered, positively affecting their poverty status and emphasising the importance of education, household food expenditure, disposable assets and membership in association as determining factors for the CBNRM programme participation.

Abstract

‘Biologicals’ (biofertilizers and biopesticides) are microbial products that increase agricultural productivity, while also contributing to soil health. These microbial products are relatively safe for human consumption. However, the legal registration of microbial products and the operation of businesses in this sector face barriers that affect the expansion and widespread use of these green products. A study of these barriers was conducted by researchers at the Université de Montréal, with the financial support of Mitacs and Earth Alive Clean Technologies, using participa-tory methods of semi-structured interviews, structured interviews and informal discussions with the manufacturers, suppliers and traders of biologicals, as well as the government officers dealing with biologicals in Ukraine. This article analyses the data collected from the participants concerning obstacles to the registration, licensing, and proliferation of microbial products.