The distance a person is willing to commute has a direct influence on her/his employment opportunities and wage level. It raises a lot of interesting questions, especially whether intra-urban commuting (due to a well-developed transport infrastructure, geographical concentration of job opportunities, etc.) is connected with any wage returns, and how they differ in comparison with those of inter-urban commuting. This article uses three data-sets at national (N1 = 1,884; N2 = 933) and local (N3 = 3,193) levels from the Czech Republic, and different approximations of commuting in order to contribute to the discussion. It provides robust evidence on positive wage returns to both inter-urban and intra-urban commuting, comparable with Western countries. The differences between large national and limited urban labour markets are reflected in functional form: wage returns are linear for intra-urban and non-linear for inter-urban commuting. The article also explores the validity of different measures of commuting time and distance provided by the on-line application Mapy.cz, and suggests that it represents a suitable approximation in the case of missing or limited data.
Long-term changes in the development of service establishments in the vicinity of the border crossing points on the Polish-Czech border are discussed in this paper. These changes are the result of the border being opened and subsequent economic integration. A series of panel studies, which took place in 1995, 2000 and 2016, analysed of the locations and types of service establishments located within a half kilometre of 18 Polish-Czech border crossings. Given the increasing ease of crossing the border and the maintenance of passport and customs controls, the number of service and retail establishments increased until 2000. After the abolition of passport control in 2007, this number has decreased at many border crossings, with the most significant decreases in financial, insurance-related and commercial facilities (small shops). Most crossings have become little more than transport corridors that offer no important service functions. The total number of cultural, recreational and tourism-related establishments, however, has increased, mainly at border crossings located in towns and villages. The most important changes in service developments at the Polish-Czech border are discussed, as well as the probable reasons for these changes. The results may prove useful for spatial planning in municipalities that are located on the borders of countries undergoing political and economic integration.
The patterns of scientific cooperation between the 28 European Union (EU) member countries, Switzerland and Norway, from 1993 and 2017, are evaluated in this article. We consider co-authorship patterns to be proxies for international transfers of tacit knowledge. The theoretical part of the paper contains propositions by researchers in evolutionary economic geography on path-dependence, selection and variation, and the role of networks in knowledge transfer. The principal argument is that the geographical configurations of knowledge transfers over distance are shaped via a set of connectivities – specific communication channels for the exchange of people, goods and knowledge between two or more countries. Some connectivities are more conducive for the transfer of explicit knowledge (e.g. merchandise trade, trade in patents), while human exchange flows (students, migrants, travellers) favour the transfer of tacit knowledge. The research project found that a considerable increase in human exchanges has helped to increase the total number of co-authored papers, but did not amend the geography of the European co-authorship network over last two decades. Rather, the layout of the network stems from a relatively stable set of historical, cultural and political legacies in Europe.
Since 2011, when the Pinta Brewery brewed the first AIPA-style beer in Poland, dynamic growth of the craft beer market has been observed. While there were 70 breweries in 2010, in 2019 there were already about 420, most of them small. The number of new beers on the market also increased rapidly each year in the analysed period, from around 80 in 2013 to about 2,500 in 2019. Similar changes were noted in other countries, including the USA, where it was accepted to call this phenomenon ‘the craft beer revolution’. The aim of this paper is to indicate the reasons for the emergence and development of this process, using Poland as a case study. Based on statistical data and content analyses, as well as studying the modern history of the beer market, the distribution of craft beer pubs and the names of craft breweries, this work provides evidence that the proliferation of microbreweries in Poland can be confirmed by concepts such as a resource-partitioning model, neolocalism, path dependence, and the diffusion of innovations.
There are debates in the research literature about the mechanisms responsible for the formation of local development trajectories. What is emphasised, as particularly scarce, are longitudinal studies which show how historical, social and institutional structures are reproduced and/or transformed into new paths of development in the case of industrial towns. This paper aims to capture the role of various social, cultural and institutional features that constitute localised capabilities, in the process of transition from an old to a new developmental path for older industrial towns. The authors use case studies of three medium-sized industrial centres in Poland: Dzierżoniów, Starachowice and Mielec, to illustrate how localised capabilities are shaped by the interplay of earlier economic activity and the characteristics of local firms, on the one hand, and the evolving social, cultural and institutional attributes of the particular town and its region on the other. As a result, industrial towns may differ significantly in their ability to absorb exogenous impulses, as well as their capacity to transform and recombine them into a new development pathway that is more resilient than the old one.
Held on 6–7 October 2018, the Romanian referendum on the topic of gay marriage was the fourth referendum of this kind organised in East Central Europe over a five-year period. Because turnout was low in all of them and demands explanation, this paper: i) discusses the common characteristics of these Eastern European marriage referendums, contextualising the Romanian referendum; ii) overviews the history of the Romanian referendum, emphasising the legal, political, ideological and societal aspects; iii) quantitatively examines the electoral geography of the voting patterns; and iv) interprets qualitative data seeking to understand the voters’ choices and why conservative mobilisation was so weak.
With respect to the fulfillment of the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy, the threat of poverty and social exclusion has not been sufficiently reduced in the European Union (EU) over the past decade, and large regional disparities persist. Young people are the most affected by the problems of income poverty, material deprivation and labour market exclusion, which are the three dimensions of poverty and social exclusion. In this article, we focus on comparing the EU countries in terms of the three listed dimensions, while revealing similarities and differences in the incidence and severity of these social phenomena among youth. In addition to measuring dimensions by the currently used AROPE (at risk of poverty or social exclusion) rate, we also use a larger spectrum of relevant indicators for a more comprehensive analysis. While the AROPE aggregate indicator uses the same methodology for the population of young people as for the whole population, our approach includes indicators that are specific to young people. We assume that all dimensions affect each other, so we apply multidimensional statistical methods such as principal components and cluster analysis to analyse them. These methods have revealed that some dimensions affect poverty and social exclusion to a greater extent and others to a lesser extent than might appear to be the case, based on AROPE’s partial rates. Moreover, we present quantified integral indicators that together with the results of the multivariate methods, provide a rather complex picture concerning the geographical distribution of poverty and social exclusion, as well as their dimensions in the EU, for the population of persons aged 18–24 years in 2008 and 2017.
The impact of statutory Sunday retail restrictions on the transport behaviours of people living in the Polish post-socialist city of Lodz is investigated in this article. One carrier of information on journeys undertaken in the city is data from induction loops – a part of the city’s Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The second source of data is a two-stage questionnaire survey (concerning trading and non-trading Sundays) of the city’s inhabitants, aimed at defining any changes in their transport behaviours with reference to the introduction of retail restrictions. The research was conducted to assess the way in which the new statutory restrictions affect transport behaviour discharged after the political transformation. The results of the research conducted on the transport behaviours of Lodz residents indicate that the majority of their transport behaviours clearly depend on whether a given Sunday is a trading or non-trading day. The traffic load of the urban road network (perceived as the manifestation of residents’ spatial mobility) is characterised by a distinct changeability due to the legislative restrictions related to Sunday trading. There is both a time (daily and hourly) differentiation of traffic flows and a spatial changeability of the load in the urban space, when a comparative analysis is conducted of the results of observations made in the weeks preceding trading and non-trading Sundays. The study also demonstrates that the time previously devoted to Sunday shopping is currently spent not only at home, but also allocated to new (and until now unperformed) activities that often require travelling.
The conjunction of citizen science and social media through the mediation of the smartphone is investigated in this Scientific Communication, following on from the last issue of the Moravian Geographical Reports (2019, Vol. 27, No. 4). Through a reconsideration of three previously published articles, in part written by the author, this paper reflects on these topics with regard to farmer innovation, local food networks and citizen-informed ecology. Each of these papers has used Twitter to gather data about practices of innovation and observation that have revealed new insights about innovation networks amongst farmers, urban-rural connections and insect behaviours. The reflections reported here are embedded in a discussion of the rise of the term ‘Citizen Science’. Recent experiences in areas as diverse as fisheries management and combating Ebola, have informed societal needs for greater engagement in finding inclusive, comprehensive solutions to urgent socio-ecological problems. This paper suggests a compositional approach to studies using citizen scientists and their data as a new avenue of practice and investigation.
The socioeconomic performance of industrial small and medium-sized towns (SMSTs) in comparison to that of non-industrial SMSTs, is subject to evaluation in this paper, to see if the presence of industry has adverse effects on socioeconomic factors. We studied 32 variables accounting for dimensions of socioeconomic performance in Slovenian SMSTs and conducted various statistical tests. We found only minor differences between the two groups, pertaining mainly to some elements of economic structure and demography, and some mixed relations of industrial employment and socioeconomic performance. The results demonstrate that industrial SMSTs should not be labelled automatically as ‘disadvantaged’. We discuss why our results differ from general research expectations in the literature: in the local context, we outline the “egalitarian syndrome” and policies of polycentric spatial development; in the global context, we discuss the “failed tertiarisation effect” and the differences between post-socialist and “Western” countries. We conclude by proposing that research should be re-oriented towards the more place-sensitive issues of industrial towns across Europe.