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Research purpose: Food security remains a major component of economic development. Many developing nations are facing challenges of food insecurity, which had contributed to starvation and other societal problems. With adequate food intake, human healthy living is assured. This study investigates the impact of access to formal finance and indigenous technology and knowledge on food security in Ondo central senatorial district in Ondo state, Nigeria.

Methodology: In total, 216 farmers were sampled, and data were collected through a well-structured questionnaire and focus interviews. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and logit estimation technique.

Findings: Descriptive statistics show that there are more male farmers (61.1%) than female counterparts (38.9%), with most of the farmers (42.7%) in their ages 56 years and above and with 51.9% having primary education. Majority of the farmers (65.7%) engage in arable crop farming, while 15.2 and 19.1% engage in cash crop and livestock farming, respectively. The econometric model reveals that age, income, gender, education, marital status, religion, family size, assets owned and distance are major determinants of a farmer’s decision on account ownership, savings and borrowing. Indigenous knowledge of soil fertility, disease-resistant and quickly-growing crops, food storage, local weather, water management, pest and diseases control are significant determinants of food security in Ondo central senatorial district. Likewise, account ownership, savings and borrowing from formal financial institutions are significant determinants of food security.

Practical implications: It is, therefore, important that efforts to ease access to formal financial services and improve indigenous technology to serve as complement to modern farming techniques to achieve food security be made a priority by government and private institutions.


The present study addresses the consequences of materialistic value-orientation (i.e. Acquisition Centrality) on the effect of the sense of control on religious experiences of the urban consumer class of Bangladesh. The central thesis is that economic transformation may contribute to the materialistic value-orientation and exert a control on the social experience; nonetheless, it would not exert any effect between the relationship of the Locus of Control and the role of religion. To test the thesis, the research investigates; given the economic growth begets acquisition centrality on a larger scale and these values, in return, often form the new purpose of social lives and emerge as a potential social force of modernity. Can religion as a century-old social institution continue to have strong-hold on the definition of social reality? To answer the question, this Cross-sectional research administered a survey of 1246 respondents from ten randomly selected distinct areas of Dhaka city and analyzed the data within a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. The findings suggest that the people with high (External) sense of control are more likely to be influenced by their religious experiences and the people with low (Internal) sense of control have high Acquisition Centrality; Acquisition Centrality strengthened the influence of External Locus of Control on the influence of religion.


Evidence from literature shows that deviant behavior is on high side among undergraduates in Nigeria whereas some certain psychosocial factors causing this phenomenon have not been fully explored. This study examined whether age, gender, socio-economic status and attitude towards drug abuse determine deviant behavior among the undergraduate students. It adopted ex-post facto design. Simple random sampling technique was used to sample 269 participants. The Prescription Drug Attitudes Questionnaire (PDAQ) and Deviant Behavior Variety Scale (DBVS) were used to gather data from the participants. T-test analysis and multiple regression were used to test the formulated hypotheses. The results revealed that age, monthly allowance and attitude towards drug abuse have significant joint prediction of deviant behavior (R=.358 R2 =.128, F=10.594, p<.05) while only attitude towards drug abuse independently predicted deviant behavior (R=.236, R2 =.056 F = 17.112; p<.01). Also, there was a significant gender difference on deviant behavior [t (293) = 4.196, p<.01], where male respondents scored high significantly (M=4.09, SD=3.44) compared to female respondents (M=2.53, SD=2.31) on deviant behavior. It is therefore recommended that policy makers in educational sector and the governing council of tertiary institutions need to create awareness on the debilitating effects of drugs on students’ behavior, especially among males.


Subject and purpose of work: Running an agricultural activity requires acquiring funds necessary for its functioning and proper development. The most classic examples of financing agricultural activity include all kinds of bank loans used by farmers for the purchase of agricultural land, construction and modernization of buildings, the purchase of machinery and equipment, as well as the establishment of perennial plantations or the purchase of a herd. The aim of the study is to present the possibilities of financing agricultural activity by cooperative banks in the Podlaskie Voivodeship.

Materials and methods: The study used the method of observation and analysis of banking materials. The source of information was the data of cooperative banks, the Agency for Restructuring and Modernization of Agriculture and the Central Statistical Office.

Results: Over the centuries, cooperative banks have developed techniques, methods and practices in the field of agricultural lending. They have somehow specialized in this area and offer farmers a full range of commercial loans. They have also actively participated in the redistribution of funds under the implementation of the EU Common Agricultural Policy. for many years. Currently operating farms have access to many forms of financing (the most developed and available in banks, however, are loans) depending on their financial needs or planned investments.

Conclusions: Among many forms of foreign capital in agriculture, it is preferential loans that play a significant role as a stimulus to improve farm activities. Granting loans by cooperative banks is one of the basic tasks in their operations. Bank loans play an important role in changes taking place in agriculture. They generally do not violate the principles of market economy and financing rules, provided that the financial and credit policy takes into account the needs and limitations resulting from the current and forecast economic situation of farms.


Employees who have a high level of engagement can be a solution to performance problems, because they feel tied to the organization and work enthusiastically. The study aims to determine the condition of engagement and analyse the factors that can affect the level of engagement of employees of bank front lines in the city of Bandung. The method used in this research is descriptive method by applying exploratory factor analysis to 42 factors that influence employee engagement. The results of the study found that the 42 factors were quite influential in increasing the engagement of Bank front liner employees in the city of Bandung. And 5 new factors are formed which consist of: Individual Factors Facility Factors; Motivation Factors; and Career Factors.


This study establishes long-run relations between budget deficits and inflation, while controlling for money supply owing to the justified links between deficits and money supply especially for developing countries. We employed time series data with temporal coverage of 1980-2018. Augmented Dickey Fuller has tested nonstationary for all series, but with all stationary at first difference. The Engle-Granger (1981) methodology for Cointegration tested long-run relation between budget deficits, money supply and inflation. Due to Laney and Willet (1983), the conventional least squares regression was adopted to estimate parameters of long-run equation. The results evidenced that fiscal deficits and money supply have been at the root of galloping inflation in Ethiopia. Besides, budget deficits have been the root cause of money supply growth in Ethiopia; while giving empirical support to the hypothesis that, governments of least developed countries resort to monetize large portion of their deficits. There is a need to reform the fiscal aspect of the government, if the mounting rate of deficits has to be lessened. Budgetary imbalances can be rectified through enhancement of domestic capital market and setting limits on central bank borrowing. Besides, it could be vital to expand the tax base as well as intensify efficiency of the existing tax system in the country.


The rapid development of computer technology over the past decades has brought about countless benefits across industries and social benefits as well—constant interpersonal connectivity is facilitated through numerous communication channels and social media outlets, energy-producing enterprises employ complex machinery management systems for increased efficiency, ease of access and safety, hedge funds make use of high-frequency trading algorithms to engage in trades happening at a fraction of a second, while medical professionals use predictive technologies to diagnose diseases and forecast viral outbreaks. Widespread adoption of technology necessitated the creation of regulatory frameworks that would ensure the safeguarding of rights and regulatory and judicial supervision over the exploitation of high technology. one such framework is the Gdpr, created due to the need for a comprehensive, contemporary legal regime governing the processing of personal data in a time when such data has become a commodity that is traded and sold in return for services or financial gain. However, in the authors’ view, the Gdpr suffers in terms of efficacy in the context of artificial intelligence-based technologies, and full compliance of data controllers and processors employing such technologies is unlikely to be achieved, particularly in regards to the right to information, the general principle of transparency and the right to erasure. The article provides an overview of these issues, including a discussion on the movement towards a regime of data ownership, and proposes legislative amendments as an effective method of mitigating these drawbacks.


This article explores the importance of capability building to the success of public service reforms. It draws on the neglected literature on capability to explore how capability is a product (or not) of the interaction between the skills, experience and methods of an individual – and the culture, structures, processes of the organisation they work in. The analysis identifies four key features of successful capability-building reforms in the UK, which are also found in the early successes of the Goal Programme for Public Service Reform and Innovation: an iterative and permissive approach to project identification and scoping; projects on high-priority, cross-cutting outcomes that demand new ways of working; projects that are connected with conducive elements of the organisational and leadership context; projects that are designed to create or adapt ‘enabling routines’ which civil servants ‘learn by doing’. Such reforms have acted as capability factories. And as the early adopters of new routines rise through the organisation and take on new roles, they become advocates and teachers of the routines and practice they have acquired. This is how organisations learn and build the capability they need to succeed.


The present paper has identified two career models, the Protean Career and the Boundaryless Career, that can be considered to accommodate higher education graduates’ personal and professional needs, as well as the flexibility and adaptability requirements of the current labor market. The research used the data from a tracer study applied online to the graduates of the West University of Timisoara, with a response rate of 25% (which falls within the response rate for similar studies at the European level).

There has been an increased dynamic of the number of jobs compared to the short period since they have been active on the labor market, especially among male graduates. At the level of individual factors that can influence career success, the importance given to both objective and subjective values is observed. The results have shown that for graduates, income, job security, the possibility of promotion, the use of knowledge, but especially leisure time, are equal priorities, with consistent values in time for both stages of the study. Moreover, there has been a significant negative association between the variables of leisure time and job satisfaction (r (522) = -.17, p <.001). Given the mode of action, the high dynamics of jobs, which reflect the much-needed flexibility in the dynamic context of the labor market, and the values that have guided job search, often working and studying at the same time, the pattern of employment career that most accurately describes the career profile of graduates seems to be that of the Protean career (the path with a heart), also called the career of the 21st century.