Browse

1 - 10 of 1,020 items :

  • Public Finance and Fiscal Theory x
Clear All

Abstract

This article primarily aims to estimate the impact of the Armenian revolution and test the hypothesis, that is, the benefits of revolution and establishment of democracy can be seen even in the first year after the political change. To calculate the short-term net surplus of the revolution, we estimated the difference between the projection of Armenian economic activity for the four quarters after the revolution, using only pre-revolutionary (assuming there was no revolution) and real data for the same period after the revolution. Using deep neural network models, such as recurrent neural networks and convolutional neural networks (CNN), we compared prediction accuracy with structural econometrics, such as autoregressive integrated moving average and error correction model, using pre-revolutionary data (2000Q1–2018Q1) for Armenia and combinations of models using an ensembling mechanism. As a result, CNN overperformed the rest of the models. The CNN simulation on post-revolutionary data indicates that during the period 2018-Q2–2019-Q1, Armenia gained approximately 850 million EUR in terms of GDP, thanks to the revolution and the new government. Moreover, out of seven models, the five best models in terms of accuracy indicated that the revolution had no negative impact on the Armenian economy, as the actual values were within or above the 95% confidence interval of the prediction.

Abstract

The paper aims to find what determines the choice of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) between public debt (corporate bonds) and private debt (bank loans). For this purpose, we estimate logistic regression models and panel models of corporate borrowing determinants to compare the impact of enterprise characteristics on financing with the use of corporate bonds or bank loans. In this study, we are interested in explanatory variables that explain the role of transparency measured by the level of information disclosure; and a risk proxy of the variability of operational cash flows and investment risk (retrieved from generalised auto-regressive conditional heteroscedasticity [GARCH] models estimated on companies’ stocks [shares] trading on the WSE).

Abstract

This article presents the role of clusters in the Polish innovation system. This role has evolved in recent years due to maturing of cluster organisations and the expansion of their ability not just to provide services for cluster members but also to perform selected public tasks. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the nature and extent to which clusters can contribute to the objectives of development policies and thus to the economic development of the Polish economy and answer the question what role clusters can play in the innovation system. Based on a survey of 44 cluster organisations in Poland and interviews with cluster managers, the study explores the possibility of engaging Polish cluster organisations in the implementation of public policies. The results confirm that many of the Polish clusters achieved such a level of development that they themselves see the possibility of engaging in public tasks, for example education and specialised training, helping enterprises in digital transformation, monitoring technological trends, and so on. Therefore, it is justified pursuing a dual cluster policy. This duality means focus on two objectives: supporting cluster organisations on the one hand and implementing cluster-based development policies on the other hand.

Abstract

This article focuses on the determinants of inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in Russia. The article briefly describes the historical context of foreign investment policymaking in Russia since the beginning of the economic transition to an open market economy after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. When compared to other developing countries, Russia's FDI stocks continue to lag despite a set of proactive measures undertaken by the national government. Following the literature review, the most commonly cited determinants explaining inward FDI in Russia include market size, labour productivity, trade and investment barriers, domestic exchange rate, rule of law and institutional framework.

This article aims to contribute empirically to the study of determinants of inward FDI in Russia.

This article uses the Pseudo-Poisson Maximum Likelihood (PPML) estimation technique, the robustness of the PPML estimation is then verified using a standard autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model with the Durbin–Watson autocorrelation test.

Our benchmark results suggest the efficiency-seeking motive of FDI over a market seeking and horizontal motive as a main reason for inward FDI in Russia. The ARIMA regression indicates the absence of statistical significance of economic openness and variables of labour productivity. Overall, the market size and tax rate variables have the most positive effects on the inward FDI, while barriers to trade and sanctions have the most negative effects. The results confirm that for transitional economies, integration into the world economy, proactive local development and tax cuts for outside investors remain to be critical when it comes to attracting FDI.

Abstract

The Directive 2013/34/EU is a fundamental part of European Union (EU) legislation harmonising the regime of financial and non-financial reporting throughout the entire EU, including reporting about corporate social responsibility (CSR). Inasmuch as its transposition deadline expired in 2015, it is possible and also highly elucidating to holistically study its nature and actual transposition. A related literature summing up, accompanied with a legislation and transposition review compiled via the EUR-Lex database, makes for a solid foundation for a holistic and critical exploration of the related case law of the ultimate judicial authority for the interpretation and application of the Directive 2013/34/EU, namely the Court of Justice of the EU (CJ EU). Researching this case law within the Curia database brings forth an interesting meta-analysis, refreshed by Socratic questioning, which reveals the approach of the CJ EU to the Directive 2013/34/EU. The hypothesis suggests that this case law of the CJ EU offers valuable and as-yet hitherto-neglected indices, signifiers about the EU conforming to the perception of the nature and meaning of the Directive 2013/34/EU. These indices could be pivotal for further improvement of the harmonized regime of financial and non-financial reporting, for the boosting of CSR and also for supporting European integration and its legitimacy.

Abstract

Boosting the local economic growth and cohesion policy may be supported by using the public intervention. The local governments may benefit directly and indirectly from the place-based policy implemented as Special Economic Zones (SEZ). SEZ directly increase the employment and the number of firms, while, indirectly, they can raise the local public sector financial performance in the long run by increasing revenues from personal and corporate income taxes. This article assesses the efficiency of this policy at the local level in the context of an institutional environment and inter-agent local diffusion. It also uses the statistical methodology based on the comparison of the empirical density distributions of the economic and financial indicators within the institutional groups to detect the global shift or divergence or convergence patterns. This article examines the Polish experience of public intervention in 1995–2016 with 14 SEZ located in more than 350 different locations. It proves that in general, the financial and economic situation of the municipalities with SEZ did not improve. An institutional analysis of the SEZ operating conditions indicates that the weak operating requirements for SEZ firms together with a poor location cannot constitute a catalyst for local development.

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to analyse the impact of various financial ratios used to evaluate a company’s liquidity and solvency on the rates of return on the shares of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. In the context of developing countries, the relationship between liquidity and solvency on the one hand and the return on equity on the other is still not clear. Poland is the most economically developed country in Central and Eastern Europe. A thorough analysis is necessary to take appropriate action and introduce adequate regulations in the country, as well as to create the foundation for researching other economies in this region. In addition, this article includes new estimators that have not yet been taken into account but that may affect the rates of return, which will contribute to the literature on the subject and to the development of knowledge on the volatility of returns on shares. In the study, we have calculated the time-varying beta coefficients of the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) model and analysed portfolios based on three liquidity ratios and four solvency ratios, which were computed using the CAPM, Fama–French and Carhart models. The empirical study described in the article focuses on companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in the period from 1 January 1999 to 30 June 2013. Regressions were estimated by the least-squares method and by quantile regression. Based on the results, it was found that listed companies at risk of bankruptcy are able to meet their short-term liabilities. Liquidity and solvency measured by financial ratios significantly affect the sensitivity of the rate of return on shares to the risk factors expressed in the CAPM, Fama––French and Carhart models.

Abstract

The paper shows how the original semi endogenous and balanced growth model of , and my extended version of it (), could be useful in explaining the key ‘stylized facts’ of global long-term growth so far, and in predicting its dynamics in the future. During the last two centuries the sector of R&D and education, producing qualitative changes, has been expanding in the world’s most developed countries much faster than the sector producing conventional goods. The extended model is used to explore and evaluate. the consequences for the global long-term growth of the end of this unbalanced growth, of the completion of the catching up by most of the world’s less developed countries, and of the expected eventual stabilization of the size of the world population. The theory yields a thesis, new in the literature, that the rate of global per capita GDP growth will eventually return to the historically standard very low level, thus implying that the world’s technological revolution is going to be an innovation super-fluctuation.

Abstract

Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the backbone of the economy and their need to be financed remains one of the most discussed topics in the business world (; ). Financial leasing is a midterm financial instrument mainly used for the procurement of machinery, equipment, tools and/or property (). Although the financial leasing in Albania started in 2001, this form of business financing has experienced difficulties in spreading, getting recognised and being used by the public in Europe which is different from other countries. About 19 years after the creation of the first leasing companies, this financing option continues to be used at a low scale by businesses and individuals and it remains segmented into the market despite its large potential and the need for financing similar to SMEs. Why is financial leasing not yet used in Albania and which are some of the factors that would influence its use in the future? The purpose of this article is to identify the reasons of why the financial leasing market in Albania is in stagnation and understand some of the factors that influence the demand from a SME to be financed through lease. To achieve this and understand firms’ behaviour, questionnaire has been distributed to companies that have used lease to finance their asts and those that have never used it before. The model used to analyse the results of the questionnaires is the logistic regression. As we will see through the article, factors in need for financing by SMEs or the knowledge firms have about leasing have a direct impact on the possibility of firms to use lease.

Abstract

The analysis of the regularities characterizing the existing rate of female early-stage entrepreneurial activity, as well as the identification of reserves for female entrepreneurship growth is relevant nowadays. The purpose of the work is to assess the rates of entrepreneurial activity of women, their motivational preferences, and comparative analysis of female and male early-stage entrepreneurial activities. The study is based on the economic analysis of the data on 48 countries, presented in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor report for 2018. Normal distribution density functions are used in the modeling process. The research reveals features of female entrepreneurship and the barriers to its development. The paper defines countries with high and low values of the considered indicators. The study estimates the existing rates of opportunity and necessity motivation of female entrepreneurs, presents the analysis of the ratio of female to male participation in early-stage entrepreneurial activity, and proves the hypothesis on substantial differentiation of these indicators across countries. The obtained knowledge can be used in future scientific research, in the educational process of bachelors and masters training. The scientific novelty lies in the study of the distribution of indicators characterizing female entrepreneurs’ motivation and the existing gender gap in early-stage entrepreneurship. The study proposes new methods and tools for the analysis and presents a comparative analysis of the development of female and male early-stage entrepreneurship.