The paper focuses on assessment of the sensitivity of investment on cash flow (ICFS) made by listed companies in Poland. Achieving this goal will also involve analysing and drawing conclusions about the balance-sheet channel of monetary transmission. An empirical part uses data from financial statements for Poland derived from Emerging Markets Information Services (EMIS), related to companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange and NewConnect. Estimations were made using the Ordinary Least Squares method with robust standard errors, and results made it clear that cash flow has a positive significant impact, indicating that most companies operate on the imperfect and incomplete market, and with constrained or costly access to external financing. Further, it is found that the impact is significantly strong in the slowdown, as financial constraints are more binding. These results seem to confirm that the balance-sheet channel of monetary transmission is operative in Poland.
The paper aims to find the relationship between corporate expenditures on R&D and tax burdens comparing German with French R&D incentives. We use the OLS method for the financial and patent cross-sectional data retrieved from the Amadeus database. The results confirm that firms with higher tax spread (the difference between the nominal and effective tax rates) spend less on R&D. These are in line with findings of a positive relationship between corporate R&D investment and tax burdens. Thus, firms that invest in R&D more pay higher taxes. However, they are less profitable as the return on R&D investment is visible only in the long run. German corporate expenditures on R&D are significantly sensitive to internal funds (proxied by cash flow) and depend on debt, contrary to French. The results indicate that the French firm's age (a phase of life cycle) has a significant impact on spending on R&D compared to German. Whereas in both countries, corporate expenditures on R&D are sensitive to the number of obtained patents. The capability of reducing the level of tax burdens below the nominal tax rate in the case of older German firms stimulates them to increase their R&D expenditures. However, German firms can decrease tax due to the use of R&D grants (revenues without taxation) in the absence of other tax incentives related to R&D.
The automotive industry is a particularly sensitive sector of the economy. Numerous legal changes have been introduced in Poland that may affect the company's liquidity and profitability. Sales of new vehicles in Poland were very high until the end of 2019. I have presented the most recently available financial data, and hence it can be concluded that they are not distorted. The article discusses the issue of cash flow statements and the associated financial ratios, as well as assesses the financial liquidity among the importers of new, ten best-selling car makers in Poland between 2015 and 2019. Moreover, I have analysed the relationship between profitability ratios and liquidity ratios as well as cash adequacy ratios during this period. According to my findings, in most cases, there is a positive and strong relationship between profitability and financial liquidity in the automotive industry.
This paper analyses the influence of financial development on income inequality. Throughout this work, one may find the overview of theoretical and empirical literature as well as the empirical model using fixed panel data method. This research paper tries to disentangle the opposing views on the relationship between finance and income distribution, by evaluating the impact of the different dimensions of financial development on the level of income inequality. The important added value of this research is the usage of quintiles of income distribution as a dependent variable that may help to recognise the effect of financial development on the poorest and richest. Another novelty of the paper is the consideration of the effects of financial variables on Gini coefficient in the long and short run. The main results of the analysis using dataset from 2003 to 2014 indicate that financial access decreases income inequality.
The article is devoted towards the application of managerial accounting for deliverology development at the local government level in countries and comparing them to the stage of fiscal decentralisation implementation in Ukraine. The aim of the article is to show how the application of the managerial accounting approach in the public sector can contribute to the introduction of deliverology at the local level using Ukraine as an example. The methodology is based on the application of Difference in Difference method for the implementation of deliverology at the local government level. It has been proved that the use of multi-criteria decision-making methods in the analysis of the performance of budget programmes at the local level will contribute to the improvement of public services delivery. The main contribution of this study is to provide the basis for developing recommendations for the use of a single or uniform standard of electronic databases on regional development indicators and local budgets. This will help to ensure operational control over deviations of actual indicators from planned ones, as well as identify regions where local authorities are using resources inefficiently.
Macroeconomic forecasters are often believed to idealistically work on improving the accuracy of their estimates based on for example the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE). Unfortunately, reality is far more complex. Forecasters are not awarded equally for each of their estimates. They have their targets of acquiring publicity or to earn prestige. This article aims to study the results of Parkiet's competitions of macroeconomic forecasting during 2015–2019. Based on a logit model, we analyse whether more accurate forecasting of some selected macroeconomic variables (e.g. inflation) increases the chances of winning the competition by a greater degree comparing to the others. Our research shows that among macroeconomic variables three groups have a significant impact on the final score: inflation (CPI and core inflation), the labour market (employment in the enterprise sector and unemployment rate) and financial market indicators (EUR/PLN and 10-year government bond yields). Each group is characterised by a low disagreement between forecasters. In the case of inflation, we found evidence that some forecasters put a greater effort to score the top place. There is no evidence that forecasters are trying to somehow exploit the contest.
In this paper, cryptocurrencies are analysed as investment instruments. The study aims to verify whether they can be classified as an asset class and what kind of benefits they may bring to the investor's portfolio. We used 6 indices as proxies for the major asset classes, including the cryptocurrency index CRIX, for all cryptographic assets.
Cryptocurrencies relatively fully satisfied 7 asset class requirements, namely stable aggregation, investability, internal homogeneity, external heterogeneity, expected utility, selection skill and cost-effective access. It was found that crypto assets have diversification properties. Portfolio optimisation with the Modern Portfolio Theory showed an increase in the Sharpe ratio of tangency portfolios with the inclusion of CRIX. However, the Post-Modern Portfolio Theory identified significant deterioration of the downside risk and the Sortino ratio.
The article addresses the issue of stress testing based on the probability of bankruptcy and a rating migration matrix. The analysis is conducted on a sample of listed companies in Poland in the years 1998–2016, and the forecasts are made for the years 2016–2018. Particular attention is paid to how the variable on which rating migration matrices are developed is defined. Stress tests are carried out on variables derived from rating migration matrices and economic indicators. The study provides information on the methodology for stress testing.
This paper examines the relationship between the voting behaviour of European Parliament members on the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB) proposal and economic characteristics of their respective countries. We are concerned about the political and economy factors behind policy and decision making of CCCTB in European Parliament. The analysis is conducted with Logit model identifying factors affecting the voting consultation decision of the Parliament of the European Union in 2018. Particularly, we investigate the impact of four components taken from tax benefit index proposed by W. Orłowski. We have found that economic factors alone are responsible the voting behaviour of the European Union deputies, not their personal characteristics.
This article offers an empirical analysis of determinants of inflation in 28 European economies that belonged to the transition group of countries in the end of the last century. We rely on dynamic panel methodology and find that economic and structural variables, including economic openness, unemployment, real wages, institutional effects, as well as external factors, such as prices of food and oil, determine the short-run inflationary dynamics in these countries. The obtained results also indicate that inflation rate is autoregressive in the observed period (2005-2015), confirming that contemporaneous inflation rate is determined by the entire history of these determinants. Our further investigation reveals long- term effects of the majority of these variables on price dynamics. Interestingly, distinction between the current EU and transition countries in the model does not lead to different conclusions.