This article primarily aims to estimate the impact of the Armenian revolution and test the hypothesis, that is, the benefits of revolution and establishment of democracy can be seen even in the first year after the political change. To calculate the short-term net surplus of the revolution, we estimated the difference between the projection of Armenian economic activity for the four quarters after the revolution, using only pre-revolutionary (assuming there was no revolution) and real data for the same period after the revolution. Using deep neural network models, such as recurrent neural networks and convolutional neural networks (CNN), we compared prediction accuracy with structural econometrics, such as autoregressive integrated moving average and error correction model, using pre-revolutionary data (2000Q1–2018Q1) for Armenia and combinations of models using an ensembling mechanism. As a result, CNN overperformed the rest of the models. The CNN simulation on post-revolutionary data indicates that during the period 2018-Q2–2019-Q1, Armenia gained approximately 850 million EUR in terms of GDP, thanks to the revolution and the new government. Moreover, out of seven models, the five best models in terms of accuracy indicated that the revolution had no negative impact on the Armenian economy, as the actual values were within or above the 95% confidence interval of the prediction.
The paper aims to find what determines the choice of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) between public debt (corporate bonds) and private debt (bank loans). For this purpose, we estimate logistic regression models and panel models of corporate borrowing determinants to compare the impact of enterprise characteristics on financing with the use of corporate bonds or bank loans. In this study, we are interested in explanatory variables that explain the role of transparency measured by the level of information disclosure; and a risk proxy of the variability of operational cash flows and investment risk (retrieved from generalised auto-regressive conditional heteroscedasticity [GARCH] models estimated on companies’ stocks [shares] trading on the WSE).
This article presents the role of clusters in the Polish innovation system. This role has evolved in recent years due to maturing of cluster organisations and the expansion of their ability not just to provide services for cluster members but also to perform selected public tasks. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the nature and extent to which clusters can contribute to the objectives of development policies and thus to the economic development of the Polish economy and answer the question what role clusters can play in the innovation system. Based on a survey of 44 cluster organisations in Poland and interviews with cluster managers, the study explores the possibility of engaging Polish cluster organisations in the implementation of public policies. The results confirm that many of the Polish clusters achieved such a level of development that they themselves see the possibility of engaging in public tasks, for example education and specialised training, helping enterprises in digital transformation, monitoring technological trends, and so on. Therefore, it is justified pursuing a dual cluster policy. This duality means focus on two objectives: supporting cluster organisations on the one hand and implementing cluster-based development policies on the other hand.
This article focuses on the determinants of inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in Russia. The article briefly describes the historical context of foreign investment policymaking in Russia since the beginning of the economic transition to an open market economy after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. When compared to other developing countries, Russia's FDI stocks continue to lag despite a set of proactive measures undertaken by the national government. Following the literature review, the most commonly cited determinants explaining inward FDI in Russia include market size, labour productivity, trade and investment barriers, domestic exchange rate, rule of law and institutional framework.
This article aims to contribute empirically to the study of determinants of inward FDI in Russia.
This article uses the Pseudo-Poisson Maximum Likelihood (PPML) estimation technique, the robustness of the PPML estimation is then verified using a standard autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model with the Durbin–Watson autocorrelation test.
Our benchmark results suggest the efficiency-seeking motive of FDI over a market seeking and horizontal motive as a main reason for inward FDI in Russia. The ARIMA regression indicates the absence of statistical significance of economic openness and variables of labour productivity. Overall, the market size and tax rate variables have the most positive effects on the inward FDI, while barriers to trade and sanctions have the most negative effects. The results confirm that for transitional economies, integration into the world economy, proactive local development and tax cuts for outside investors remain to be critical when it comes to attracting FDI.
The possible nonlinearity of the income elasticity of child labor has been at the center of the debate regarding both its causes and the policy instruments to address it. We contribute to this debate providing theoretical and empirical novel results. From a theoretical point of view, for any given transfer size, there is a critical level of household income below which an increase in income has no impact on child labor and education. We estimate the causal impact of an increase in income on child labor and education exploiting the random allocation of the Child Grant Programme, an unconditional cash transfer (CT), in Lesotho. We show that the poorest households do not increase investment in children’s human capital, while relatively less poor households reduce child labor and increase education. In policy terms, the results indicate that CTs might not be always effective to support the investment in children’s human capital of the poorest households. Beside the integration with other measures, making the amount of transfer depends of the level of deprivation of the household, might improve CT effectiveness.
International labor mobility is a key factor for a well-functioning labor market. Although educational attainment is known to affect regional labor mobility within a country, evidence of a relationship between schooling and international labor mobility is limited, particularly in developing countries. This study uses the across-cohort variation in the exposure to the 1988 free secondary education reform in the Philippines to examine the impact of years of education on the propensity of working abroad. The results suggest that free secondary education increased the years of education for men. Moreover, the additional years of education reduced the likelihood of working abroad by 3.2% points on average. However, an extra year of female education was not associated with the probability of working abroad. These results indicate that a program for improving access to secondary education may affect international labor mobility for men even after a few decades. It underscores the importance of considering the possible labor market consequences when designing the education reform in developing countries.
The Directive 2013/34/EU is a fundamental part of European Union (EU) legislation harmonising the regime of financial and non-financial reporting throughout the entire EU, including reporting about corporate social responsibility (CSR). Inasmuch as its transposition deadline expired in 2015, it is possible and also highly elucidating to holistically study its nature and actual transposition. A related literature summing up, accompanied with a legislation and transposition review compiled via the EUR-Lex database, makes for a solid foundation for a holistic and critical exploration of the related case law of the ultimate judicial authority for the interpretation and application of the Directive 2013/34/EU, namely the Court of Justice of the EU (CJ EU). Researching this case law within the Curia database brings forth an interesting meta-analysis, refreshed by Socratic questioning, which reveals the approach of the CJ EU to the Directive 2013/34/EU. The hypothesis suggests that this case law of the CJ EU offers valuable and as-yet hitherto-neglected indices, signifiers about the EU conforming to the perception of the nature and meaning of the Directive 2013/34/EU. These indices could be pivotal for further improvement of the harmonized regime of financial and non-financial reporting, for the boosting of CSR and also for supporting European integration and its legitimacy.
Boosting the local economic growth and cohesion policy may be supported by using the public intervention. The local governments may benefit directly and indirectly from the place-based policy implemented as Special Economic Zones (SEZ). SEZ directly increase the employment and the number of firms, while, indirectly, they can raise the local public sector financial performance in the long run by increasing revenues from personal and corporate income taxes. This article assesses the efficiency of this policy at the local level in the context of an institutional environment and inter-agent local diffusion. It also uses the statistical methodology based on the comparison of the empirical density distributions of the economic and financial indicators within the institutional groups to detect the global shift or divergence or convergence patterns. This article examines the Polish experience of public intervention in 1995–2016 with 14 SEZ located in more than 350 different locations. It proves that in general, the financial and economic situation of the municipalities with SEZ did not improve. An institutional analysis of the SEZ operating conditions indicates that the weak operating requirements for SEZ firms together with a poor location cannot constitute a catalyst for local development.
The purpose of the article is to analyse the impact of various financial ratios used to evaluate a company’s liquidity and solvency on the rates of return on the shares of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. In the context of developing countries, the relationship between liquidity and solvency on the one hand and the return on equity on the other is still not clear. Poland is the most economically developed country in Central and Eastern Europe. A thorough analysis is necessary to take appropriate action and introduce adequate regulations in the country, as well as to create the foundation for researching other economies in this region. In addition, this article includes new estimators that have not yet been taken into account but that may affect the rates of return, which will contribute to the literature on the subject and to the development of knowledge on the volatility of returns on shares. In the study, we have calculated the time-varying beta coefficients of the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) model and analysed portfolios based on three liquidity ratios and four solvency ratios, which were computed using the CAPM, Fama–French and Carhart models. The empirical study described in the article focuses on companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in the period from 1 January 1999 to 30 June 2013. Regressions were estimated by the least-squares method and by quantile regression. Based on the results, it was found that listed companies at risk of bankruptcy are able to meet their short-term liabilities. Liquidity and solvency measured by financial ratios significantly affect the sensitivity of the rate of return on shares to the risk factors expressed in the CAPM, Fama––French and Carhart models.
The paper shows how the original semi endogenous and balanced growth model of , and my extended version of it (), could be useful in explaining the key ‘stylized facts’ of global long-term growth so far, and in predicting its dynamics in the future. During the last two centuries the sector of R&D and education, producing qualitative changes, has been expanding in the world’s most developed countries much faster than the sector producing conventional goods. The extended model is used to explore and evaluate. the consequences for the global long-term growth of the end of this unbalanced growth, of the completion of the catching up by most of the world’s less developed countries, and of the expected eventual stabilization of the size of the world population. The theory yields a thesis, new in the literature, that the rate of global per capita GDP growth will eventually return to the historically standard very low level, thus implying that the world’s technological revolution is going to be an innovation super-fluctuation.