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Subject and purpose of work: The study aims to assess the sustainability of rural areas of Western Himalayas during the year 2019.

Materials and methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in upper Beas Valley of Himachal Pradesh. A total of 101 individuals were interviewed and the questionnaire was filled by the surveyor.

Results: Survey showed that high level of unemployment prevailed in the region with minimal monthly income. However, they engaged in agriculture and allied activities along with collection of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to supplement their incomes. The proximity to protected areas led to frequent encounter with wildlife and such encounters increased after the commencement of Hydro Power Projects. Respondents believed that construction HPPs and expansion road network in the region has increased the occurrence of landslides; and many of them had lost their cultivated land due to landslides.

Conclusions: The study showed rural areas of upper Beas Valley were moderately unsustainable.


Subject and purpose of work: Investigation and statistical analysis of tourism flows and of trends observed in Ukrainian-Polish cross-border tourism. The purpose of the study is aiding further cross-border tourism-related cooperation between Ukraine and Poland.

Materials and methods: Government and commercial statistics sources. Data analysis methods included literary, analytical, comparative, and quantitative methods.

Results: The processes and dynamics of cross-border cooperation between Ukraine and Poland in the field of tourism during 12 years (from 2006 to 2017) have been investigated. The authors analysed data related to tourism flows and determined the primary source-countries of visitors based on the inbound and outbound indicators and the current tourism market trends within this cross-border cooperation.

Conclusions: The main trend in the Ukraine-Poland tourism flow over the last decade is the stabilisation ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL STUDIES STUDIA EKONOMICZNE I REGIONALNE ISSN 2083-3725 to Poland. In the last few years, it has been driven by Ukraine’s focus on Euro-integration.


Subject and purpose of work: The contemporary labour market in Poland is characterised by a large scale of migration of people, caused by the desire to find a good job. This situation is facilitated by the possibility of free movement within the European Union. The purpose of this study is to present the concept of migration, its types, causes and effects. Statistics related to the labour migration of Poles are also presented. The subject of the study is the migration activity of Poles abroad. The obtained data are presented using the descriptive method and graphical methods.

Materials and methods: National literature and statistical data were used during the work on the research problem.

Results: Statistics showing the scale of the migration phenomenon in Poland are presented. The research period covered the years 2013-2018.

Conclusions: Over the period under consideration, the number of Poles travelling abroad for work purposes decreased. This may be due to the decreasing number of unemployed people and the lower unemployment rate in Poland. At the same time, an increasing number of job offers in the national labour market can be observed.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the article is to present selected aspects of the digitization process of the banking sector in Poland, including the role of the digital channel in the sale of banking products.

Materials and methods: The research is of comparative character and is based on data from the financial website, NBP, KNF and the ECB Bank.

Results: Mobile banking in Poland is highly concentrated. In 2016-2019, the five largest banks serviced 82% of all mobile banking customers, and their number increased by 27% annually.

Conclusions: Digitization simplifies the process of obtaining and processing information and contributes to reducing operating costs. However it also forces banks to prepare appropriate security and implement costly technological investments. It increases the availability and quality of banking services, and moves customer service from banking branches to the digital channel. Additionally it contributes to reducing the network of branches and the number of employees employed in them.


Subject and purpose of work: The main purpose of the article is to research the state of grain-product subcomplex of the agro-industrial complex and identify the main trends in its functioning as a prerequisite for the implementation of the external economic potential of Ukraine.

Materials and methods: The research used methodical tools for analysis, construction of econometric models, as well as open information sources of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine.

Results: A set of factors (independent variables) were determined and the existence of theoretically their relationship with the production profitability of cereals and legumes (dependent variable) was substantiated. The regression equations for the investigated factors dependence were formed. The reliability of the econometric model was proved using Fisher’s criterion and Student’s t-criterion test.

Conclusions: To increase the external economic potential of the grain-product subcomplex of the agro-industrial complex, it is advisable to focus on building rational mechanisms for managing the identified determinants of efficiency ensuring of the latter.


The economic forum currently sees the postulate of a multi-dimensional analysis of economic issues, as exemplified by behavioural and institutional economics, cliometrics, wikinomics and others – taking into consideration of the achievements of cultural anthropology, sociology, ethics, philosophy, the history of economics, as well as selected exact sciences, such as mathematics and physics. The redistribution economics, the relationship between capital and labour, the issues of the precariat, guaranteed minimum income for each citizen – both conditional and unconditional, which is a new idea for economy and the society – become more and more apparent in the aforementioned areas. The idea stems from the criticism of neoliberalism, and it interferes with the system of values shaped under capitalism, the role of the welfare state, the welfare system from the perspective of institutions and beneficiaries, who would replace their current privileges with inalienable rights. The author recommends unconditional minimum income upon providing a characteristic of a wide scope of postulated solutions, implemented on an experimental scale and applied in the practice of social policy. The monograph, while constituting the author’s moderate manifesto, provides a wide – in terms of time, authors and trends in economy – review of the standpoints on the participation in the national income.


Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the paper is the formation of household savings in Ukraine and their sources of aggregate household incomes, with particular attention to the Ukrainian labor migration. It is an important source of foreign exchange earnings in the form of remittances, which help improve the welfare of population and ensure economic growth in the country.

The purpose of the paper is to research and determine major trends of the development of households’ financial resources, to examine the foreign experience of forming and use of residents’ savings and to determine the ways it can be applied in Ukraine, and to analyze the main trends of state policy in the regulation of labor migrants’ remittances.

Materials and methods: The author of this paper analyzed the literature on the subject and performed desk research using data from reports and studies published by EU statistics (Euro stat Statistics) and GUS (Statistics Poland), statistical yearbooks of Europe; WDR reports (Global Financial Development Report 2019/2020) and NBU (Official website of the National Bank of Ukraine).

Results: The author’s research has shown that the process of saving is quite popular for European people is quite popular. Accordingly, in 2019, the residents of Poland, Hungary and Romania were the most frugal – 82%, 84% and 85%. Further attitudes towards savings are the following: Turks (77%), Ukrainians (76%), Croats (75%), Serbs (72%), Germans (73%), while savings are slightly less important for Austrians (70%), Slovaks (67%), Czechs (66%), and Montenegrins (59%). This savings situation has clearly demonstrated the power of effective household decisions for overall political and economic activity in Europe. Finally, the migration capital of Ukraine has a “shadow character” due to, first of all, the desire to minimize the costs of transferring funds home through official channels, as well as distrust of the banking sector in Ukraine.

Conclusions: To increase the efficiency of the formation and use of household savings in Ukraine, it is necessary to increase the interest of citizens in savings by partially or completely exempting from taxation the income directed to accumulation and create the conditions necessary for the implementation of new banking, insurance, and other types of financial services.


Subject and purpose of work: The main issue of the work is to present the essence of venture capital, i.e. Venture Capital funds and Private Equity funds. The aim of the article is to indicate the size of the share and the role of funds in financing enterprises located in Poland. The time horizon of the presented data covers the years 2012-2019.

Materials and methods: The material for analysis is available statistical data, reports of commercial companies and other entities researching the size of the Venture Capital and Private Equity sector in Poland. For the purposes of the study, the literature on the subject was used as well as the data of: Narodowy Centrum Badań i Rozwoju, KPMG Sp. z o.o., the State Development Fund, the Startup Poland Foundation and the European Association of Venture Capital and Private Equity Investors. The method of analysis and criticism of the literature and the method of examining documents were used.

Results: The research carried out in Poland makes it possible to assess the size of the implemented venture capital investments, i.e. VC and PE funds, over the years 2012-2019. The presented data indicate that the share of funds in financing Polish enterprises has a variable tendency. The percentage share of VC and PE investors in Europe in 2017-2018 is also variable.

Conclusions: The Polish economic market is an attractive investment area in terms of cash allocation needs by venture capital funds. Increasing awareness of enterprise managers about the benefits of using these capitals to subsidize the activities of entrepreneurs allows them to discount VC and PE funds in innovative startups and in other processes, the implementation of which takes place in further phases of the company’s operations. The studies conducted so far cover the entire territory of Poland and are of an overview nature. The VC and PE funds, which are a new financial instrument, allow Polish enterprises to implement innovative projects.


Subject and purpose of work: This paper discusses the essence and main areas of conditions of local development in the context of the political transformations which have occurred in Poland over the last thirty years. Against this background, an attempt was made to differentiate between the conditions and factors of local development. The purpose of this work is to seek, considering different ways of defining local development and as part of different developmental models, a distinction and consistency between the essence of the concept of “conditions of development” and the concept of “factors of development” and to indicate the universality of general conditions for development at all levels of a country’s territorial division.

Materials and methods: This paper draws on the author’s own thoughts and a critical analysis of the literature on the subject, as well as documents relating to the practical shaping of the strategy and development policy in Poland. It presents the basic ways of defining local development and the model approach to development processes and characterises the main conditions of Poland’s socio-economic development over the last thirty years.

Results: It was determined that in the literature conditions of development are often identified with factors of development, which is not justified. It was determined that conditions constitute a certain potential which determines the possibilities for the progress of developmental processes, whereas granting a driving force to these possibilities transforms them into developmental factors for a given area. The general conditions of a country’s development also define the conditions of development at the lower levels of territorial division.

Conclusions: In the context of the growing role of local development programming and planning, it is important to differentiate between the concepts of “conditions” and “factors” of local development. Local development is shaped by both the overall conditions and factors of development of a country, and the specific local conditions and factors. The effective implementation of local development programmes and strategies requires the skill to convert development conditions into factors.


Subject and purpose of work: Community Empowerment in Sustainable Agricultural Development and CSR (Study of spice farmers in Maluku Utara). One of the duties of the nation is to facilitate prosperity for its citizens through development. Such development is pursued by the government to reach economic growth by utilizing all agriculture potentials and by organizing community development.

Materials and methods: In this study, the goals are to identify, describe and analyze the empowerment of the spice farmers’ community in Maluku Utara in sustainable agricultural development and CSR. This study is descriptive in nature and uses the qualitative approach, while data analysis relies on the Creswell’s model. Maluku Utara has a resource potential that is needed for sustainable agriculture development and CSR for community welfare.

Results: Through empowerment, which involves several stages, such as enlightenment, capacity building, and enforcement, it is possible to improve awareness, capacity, skill and strength of the community to exploit all potentials. The support given to the spice farmers’ community in sustainable agriculture development and CSR is not at the maximum. Despite this support, there are factors constraining community empowerment in sustainable agriculture development and CSR.

Conclusions: These constraints may come from community, a very low number of agriculture counselors, natural resource inadequacy, and also weather factors at Maluku Utara, all of which hamper the empowerment process.