The study assessed adoption of rice post-harvest technologies among smallholder farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents through a structured interview schedule using a multistage sampling procedure. Percentages, means, Chi-square and correlation were used to analyse the data and draw inferences. The results show that about 52.5% of the respondents had favourable perception, while 47.5% had unfavourable perception towards adoption of the rice post-harvest technologies. Rice milling (mean=4.54) and harvesting matured panicles at the right time (mean=4.47) ranked highest among the adopted post-harvest technologies, while majority (65%) of the respondents adopted the rice post-harvest technologies at moderate level and 35% had high level of adoption. Inadequate capital (mean=1.75) and poor extension contacts (mean=1.67) were the major constraints associated with the adoption. Also, there was significant association between sex (χ2= 38.174), marital status (χ2=32.85) and adoption of the rice post-harvest technologies, while age (r=-0.531), household size (r=0.414) and the quantity of rice produced (r=0.345) had significant relationship with adoption of the post-harvest rice technologies. There was moderate level of adoption among the farmers. Financial institutions, governments and non-governmental organisations should provide functional credit facilities and government should employ more extension agents to promote adoption of high-quality enhancing post-harvest technologies for sustainable rice production in Nigeria.
The beneficial effects of walnuts and walnut products on human health, due primarily to their rich polyphenolic content, have been appreciated as an empirical fact for centuries. The purpose of this study is to determine the polyphenolic contents of liqueurs made from the walnut selections ‘Rasna’ and ‘Sava’ and the walnut cultivar ‘Šampion’ (all harvested at three different times), as well as the polyphenolic contents of their green husks. The walnut liqueurs were prepared according to two traditional recipes using young walnut fruits. The highest antioxidant capacity was recorded in the liqueur made from the ‘Rasna’ walnut selection (89.94%), whereas the highest contents of phenols (83.28 mg GAE/g FW), flavonoids (0.83 mg QE/g FW) and proanthocyanidins were found in the liqueur made from the ‘Šampion’ cultivar (14.75 mg CE/g FW). The youngest ‘Rasna’ walnuts, harvested at the first experimental time point, exhibited the highest phenolic and tannin contents, whereas the highest flavonoid content was observed in the ‘Šampion’ cultivar. The biochemical results obtained indicate a decrease in the polyphenolic content of walnut fruits with their growth and development. Moreover, the polyphenolic profiles of the walnut liqueurs considered were found to be greatly affected by the method of preparation and the cultivar/selection of walnuts.
Organic agriculture has the potential to reduce the negative impacts of conventional agricultural practices and enhance rural economic development. Since research on Sri Lankan farmers’ attitude towards organic agriculture has been rare, this research aims to explore the farmers’ viewpoint on organic agriculture. Two main rural districts were purposely selected for this investigation since these districts have a high potential for organic agriculture. Two Divisional Secretariat (DS) divisions from each district and 75 farmers from the farming community of each DS division were randomly selected to form a sample of 300 farmers. Data were collected from July 2017 to April 2018 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. The results revealed that a majority of the farmers (74%) were well-aware of organic agriculture and agricultural extension programs, while training was the primary information source in both districts. As per the mean analysis, the farmers had a positive attitude towards health-related and environmental protection aspects. However, they had a negative attitude towards the complexity of organic agriculture and unavailability of a suitable market for organic products. Results of the binary logistic regression revealed that the education level of the farmers significantly affect their attitude towards organic agriculture. The availability of traditional knowledge and technology relevant to organic agriculture, favorable climatic condition, and some government support were the main potentials, while labor intensiveness was the main challenge. Thus, creating better marketing facilities for organic products, providing the required amenities for producing organic food, processing, and value addition will promote organic agriculture among more farmers, supporting sustainable development.
Sugar beet leaf spot, caused by the air-borne fungus Cercospora beticola Sacc., leads to a decrease in sugar beet leaf mass and the consequent regrowth of leaves based on exploiting the sugar reserves stored in the plant’s roots, thus ultimately resulting in lower yields and sugar contents of sugar beets. Azoxystrobin belongs to the group of QoI fungicides, which inhibit mitochondrial respiration by blocking cytochrome c reductase. The QoI fungicides are characterized by a very high risk of resistance interfering with their biological activity. For the purpose of testing the azoxystrobin sensitivity of the Cercospora beticola population found at the site of Rimski Šančevi, a collection of 84 isolates was assembled and tested for sensitivity to azoxystrobin by measuring the mycelial growth on fungicide-amended media with the addition of SHAM. The results obtained indicate that none of the isolates tested exhibited complete sensitivity to azoxystrobin, 4% were found to have reduced sensitivity, 26% were moderately resistant and 70% were highly resistant. A higher proportion of resistant isolates recorded is associated with the loss of azoxystrobin biological efficacy at the experimental site.
The aim of our study was evaluation of potential antioxidant effects of marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract and assessment of its in vitro impact on the selected quality parameters of bovine spermatozoa. Marigold is medicinal herb from the family Asteraceae native to southern Europe, and it commonly used in pharmacology and medicine. Its well-known positive properties include antioxidant, antibacterial, antiflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, antihelmintic and wound-healing activities. In this study, the flower extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which identified especially phenolic acids (rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids) and polyphenols (rutin, kaempferol, resveratrol, quercetin and apigenin). These substances are known for their antioxidant activity and protective effects against oxidative stress. For our experiments, 10 samples of semen from sexually mature Holstein bulls were collected on a single day by using an artificial vagina, diluted in physiological saline solution and exposed to solutions with different concentration of marigold flower extract (75, 150 and 300 µg/mL). Selected quality parameters (motility, mitochondrial activity, production of reactive oxygen species – ROS, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation – LPO) were analyzed after 0, 2 and 24 hours of in vitro culture. The motility evaluation was performed by using the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) method. This method revealed that 75 and 150 µg/mL extract had positive effects and increased the motility (P<0.01) and mitochondrial activity (P<0.0001) of bovine spermatozoa compared to the control group following 2 and 24 hours. This phenomenon was observed also in case of ROS production, protein oxidation and LPO. Marigold extract concentrations of 75 and 150 µg/mL decreased the levels of ROS, protein oxidation and damage to the membranes caused by LPO compared to the control group (P<0.05; P<0.01) at time 2 and 24 hours. At the same time, 300 µg/mL extract exhibited positive, although less significant, effects compared to 75 and 150 µg/mL extracts. The data acquired from our study confirm that 75 and 150 µg/mL of marigold flower extract have positive effects on the motility and mitochondrial activity of bovine spermatozoa, and decrease ROS generation, LPO and protein oxidation in spermatozoa. Based on our results, the flower extract from marigold could be used for protection against oxidative stress in in vitro cultures of male gametes.
The common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L. 1758) is an allochtonous game species of great importance to the hunting sector in Serbia. Growing concerns over a decline in its population raise issues about the proper management and hunting of common pheasants. As this research tends to identify the importance of common pheasants to Serbian hunters, the present study is based on a mixed research model combining traditional analyses with social studies on Serbian hunters. The data utilized have been collected from the annual management plans of 272 hunting grounds across Serbia and the interviews with 377 hunters. The results obtained suggest that there are significant differences between the analyzed variables in the management plans examined, which indicates that the pheasant hunting management in Serbia is not harmonized. However, the social studies conducted identify the common pheasant as the most hunted and popular game species with Serbian hunters. Accordingly, the common pheasant hunting and management in Serbia has to be improved in order to meet the hunters’ expectations and ensure their satisfaction.
The apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) possesses a number of health-promoting properties. The main beneficial effects of apple fruits on human health are associated with the antioxidant properties of components synthesising in apple fruits during their growth and development. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are such components that contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity of fruits, thus enhancing their health properties. The purpose of this study is to compare the antioxidant properties (namely antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic and flavonoid contents) of the ‘Idared’ and ‘Braeburn’ apple cultivars, grown under optimal growing conditions in the Goražde area. Ascorbic acid contents were estimated using the 2.6-dichlorophenolindophenol titration method, whereas total phenolics were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Furthermore, total flavonoids were determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, whereas the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay was used to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the apple fruits examined. The average values of the ascorbic acid, the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, and the total antioxidant capacity of the ‘Idared’ apples under consideration were 8.09 mg 100 g−1, 34.56 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g−1, 12.62 mg catechin equivalents 100 g−1 and 323.28 μmol Fe2+ 100 g−1of fresh weight, respectively. The average values of the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, as well as the antioxidant capacity of the ‘Braeburn’ apples examined were as follows: 8.89 mg 100 g−1, 33.4 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g−1, 13.56 mg catechin equivalents 100 g−1 and 367.01 μmol Fe2+ 100 g−1 of fresh weight, respectively. The analyses performed indicate that the differences recorded in the parameter values between the apple cultivars ‘Idared’ and ‘Braeburn’ were statistically non-significant. A correlation data analysis confirmed that phenolic compounds are the carriers of the antioxidant activity of apples.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of antibiotic diluent additives on the motility and morphological integrity of diluted fresh boar semen during a six-day storage period. A total of 60 insemination doses, originating from two Landrace boars, were examined and allocated to control (C, n=30, diluted with BTS) and experimental groups (E, n=30, diluted with BTS upon antibiotic addition). The treatment applied exerted positive effects on the preservation of progressive motility, percentage of live sperm and HOS test results (70.24 vs. 66.53%, 71.54 vs. 69.77%, 67.35 vs. 64.17% and 64.10 vs. 54.26%;91.15 vs. 90.02%, 88.38 vs. 85.55%, 81.50 vs. 76.13% and 74.53 vs. 68.72%; and 93.35 vs. 92.40%, 91.04 vs. 88.02 %, 84.67 vs. 78.15% and 77.27 vs. 69.44% HOS+ sperm for the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 6th day of storage, respectively). The results obtained indicate that the treatment applied has a favourable effect on preserving the quality parameters of diluted fresh boar semen during storage, resulting most likely from a reduction of bacterial contamination.
The housefly Musca domestica is a cosmopolitan insect nuisance pest, also known as a carrier of numerous pathogens both to humans and animals. Animal farms, as a very important source of house flies, simultaneously allow for all stages of their development. Having vast quantities of constantly present manure, pig units represent perfect environment for house fly breeding. This fact, coupled with the known resistance to majority of available insecticides, creates difficulties in house fly control. The present study was performed to evaluate different types of monitoring methods for indoor use: (a) spot deposit records on the cardboard; (b) fly trappings by: glue coated cardboard; (c) sticky fly strips; (d) yellow sticky cards; (e) visual records of flies on the cardboard. This study provided a clear differentiation of efficacy/usefulness of the tested methods for various house fly densities. In animal breeding units or other areas with very abundant fly population, less sensitive methods (traps are less efficient) should be selected. For these circumstances, glued cardboard or yellow sticky cards should be chosen. The “more sensitive” methods, spot cards and sticky fly strips, should be used for lower abundance of the fly population. Except for this purpose, these highly sensitive methods should be selected also in the areas where the flies should not be tolerated at any density. Although the levels of the observed fly activity significantly differ from each other, in the majority of cases they depict the similar trend of the population dynamics and relative density. The only exception to the rule was the visual method, which could not reflect the changes in the population density in the current study.
Over the past few decades, private label brands have been gaining market share in numerous retail outlets. This paper first elucidates the concepts of brand positioning, brand management and branding itself. The term brand has been used as a means of identifying the same or similar products or services present in the market. The private label brand is a quality tool providing competitive advantage under modern market conditions. The influence of the basic attributes which, knowingly or not, shape the private brands of local cheeses will be emphasized, as well as the influence of other factors affecting the brand positioning. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the role, importance and concept of private label brands in cheese production, which improve the competitive position of cheese producers.