Falls are a multifactorial cause of injuries for older people. Subjects with osteoporosis are more vulnerable to falls. The focus of this study is to investigate the performance of the different machine learning models built on spatiotemporal gait parameters to predict falls particularly in subjects with osteoporosis. Spatiotemporal gait parameters and prospective registration of falls were obtained from a sample of 110 community dwelling older women with osteoporosis (age 74.3 ± 6.3) and 143 without osteoporosis (age 68.7 ± 6.8). We built four different models, Support Vector Machines, Neuronal Networks, Decision Trees, and Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBN), for each specific set of parameters used, and compared them considering their accuracy, precision, recall and F-score to predict fall risk. The F-score value shows that DBN based models are more efficient to predict fall risk, and the best result obtained is when we use a DBN model using the experts’ variables with FSMC’s variables, mixed variables set, obtaining an accuracy of 80%, and recall of 73%. The results confirm the feasibility of computational methods to complement experts’ knowledge to predict risk of falling within a period of time as high as 12 months.
A problem of reducing interval uncertainty is considered by an approach of cutting off equal parts from the left and right. The interval contains admissible values of an observed object’s parameter. The object’s parameter cannot be measured directly or deductively computed, so it is estimated by expert judgments. Terms of observations are short, and the object’s statistical data are poor. Thus an algorithm of flexibly reducing interval uncertainty is designed via adjusting the parameter by expert procedures and allowing to control cutting off. While the parameter is adjusted forward, the interval becomes progressively narrowed after every next expert procedure. The narrowing is performed via division-by-q dichotomization cutting off the q−1-th parts from the left and right. If the current parameter’s value falls outside of the interval, forward adjustment is canceled. Then backward adjustment is executed, where one of the endpoints is moved backwards. Adjustment is not executed when the current parameter’s value enclosed within the interval is simultaneously too close to both left and right endpoints. If the value is “trapped” like that for a definite number of times in succession, the early stop fires.
Designing an efficient optimization method which also has a simple structure is generally required by users for its applications to a wide range of practical problems. In this research, an enhanced differential evolution algorithm with adaptation of switching crossover strategy (DEASC) is proposed as a general-purpose population-based optimization method for continuous optimization problems. DEASC extends the solving ability of a basic differential evolution algorithm (DE) whose performance significantly depends on user selection of the control parameters: scaling factor, crossover rate and population size. Like the original DE, the proposed method is aimed at e ciency, simplicity and robustness. The appropriate population size is selected to work in accordance with good choices of the scaling factors. Then, the switching crossover strategy of using low or high crossover rates are incorporated and adapted to suit the problem being solved. In this manner, the adaptation strategy is just a convenient add-on mechanism. To verify the performance of DEASC, it is tested on several benchmark problems of various types and di culties, and compared with some well-known methods in the literature. It is also applied to solve some practical systems of nonlinear equations. Despite its much simpler algorithmic structure, the experimental results show that DEASC greatly enhances the basic DE. It is able to solve all the test problems with fast convergence speed and overall outperforms the compared methods which have more complicated structures. In addition, DEASC also shows promising results on high dimensional test functions.
Methods for solving non-linear control systems are still being developed. For many industrial devices and systems, quick and accurate regulators are investigated and required. The most effective and promising for nonlinear systems control is a State-Dependent Riccati Equation method (SDRE). In SDRE, the problem consists of finding the suboptimal solution for a given objective function considering nonlinear constraints. For this purpose, SDRE methods need improvement.
In this paper, various numerical methods for solving the SDRE problem, i.e. algebraic Riccati equation, are discussed and tested. The time of computation and computational effort is presented and compared considering selected nonlinear control plants.
Evolution of software development process and increasing complexity of software systems calls for developers to pay great attention to the evolution of CASE tools for software development. This, in turn, causes explosion for appearance of a new wave (or new generation) of such CASE tools. The authors of the paper have been working on the development of the so-called two-hemisphere model-driven approach and its supporting BrainTool for the past 10 years. This paper is a step forward in the research on the ability to use the two-hemisphere model driven approach for system modelling at the problem domain level and to generate UML diagrams and software code from the two-hemisphere model. The paper discusses the usage of anemic domain model instead of rich domain model and offers the main principle of transformation of the two-hemisphere model into the first one.
The achievement of high-precision segmentation in medical image analysis has been an active direction of research over the past decade. Significant success in medical imaging tasks has been feasible due to the employment of deep learning methods, including convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Convolutional architectures have been mostly applied to homogeneous medical datasets with separate organs. Nevertheless, the segmentation of volumetric medical images of several organs remains an open question. In this paper, we investigate fully convolutional neural networks (FCNs) and propose a modified 3D U-Net architecture devoted to the processing of computed tomography (CT) volumetric images in the automatic semantic segmentation tasks. To benchmark the architecture, we utilised the differentiable Sørensen-Dice similarity coefficient (SDSC) as a validation metric and optimised it on the training data by minimising the loss function. Our hand-crafted architecture was trained and tested on the manually compiled dataset of CT scans. The improved 3D UNet architecture achieved the average SDSC score of 84.8 % on testing subset among multiple abdominal organs. We also compared our architecture with recognised state-of-the-art results and demonstrated that 3D U-Net based architectures could achieve competitive performance and efficiency in the multi-organ segmentation task.
In this day and age, access to the Internet has become very easy, thereby providing access to different educational resources posted on the cloud even easier. Open access to resources, such as research journals, publications, articles in periodicals etc. is restricted to retain their authenticity and integrity, as well as to track and record their usage in the form of citations. This gives the author of the resource his fair share of credibility in the community, but this may not be the case with open educational resources such as lecture notes, presentations, test papers, reports etc. that are produced and used internally within an organisation or multiple organisations. This calls for the need to build a system that stores a permanent and immutable repository of these resources in addition to keeping a track record of who utilises them. Keeping in view the above-mentioned problem in mind, the present research attempts to explore how a Blockchain based system called Block-ED can be used to help the educational community manage their resources in a way to avoid any unauthorised manipulations or alterations to the documents, as well as recognise how this system can provide an innovative method of giving credibility to the creator of the resource whenever it is utilised.
Uniform multi-dimensional designs of experiments for effective research in computer modelling are highly demanded. The combinations of several one-dimensional quasi-random sequences with a uniform distribution are used to create designs with high homogeneity, but their optimal choice is a separate problem, the solution of which is not trivial. It is believed that now the best results are achieved using Sobol’s LPτ-sequences, but this is not observed in all cases of their combinations. The authors proposed the creation of effective uniform designs with guaranteed acceptably low discrepancy using recursive Rd-sequences and not requiring additional research to find successful combinations of vectors set distributed in a single hypercube. The authors performed a comparative analysis of both approaches using indicators of centred and wrap-around discrepancies, graphical visualization based on Voronoi diagrams. The conclusion was drawn on the practical use of the proposed approach in cases where the requirements for the designs allowed restricting to its not ideal but close to it variant with low discrepancy, which was obtained automatically without additional research.
The foundational features of multi-agent systems are communication and interaction with other agents. To achieve these features, agents have to transfer messages in the predefined format and semantics. The communication among these agents takes place with the help of ACL (Agent Communication Language). ACL is a predefined language for communication among agents that has been standardised by the FIPA (Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agent). FIPA-ACL defines different performatives for communication among the agents. These performatives are generic, and it becomes computationally expensive to use them for a specific domain like e-commerce. These performatives do not define the exact meaning of communication for any specific domain like e-commerce. In the present research, we introduced new performatives specifically for e-commerce domain. Our designed performatives are based on FIPA-ACL so that they can still support communication within diverse agent platforms. The proposed performatives are helpful in modelling e-commerce negotiation protocol applications using the paradigm of multi-agent systems for efficient communication. For exact semantic interpretation of the proposed performatives, we also performed formal modelling of these performatives using BNF. The primary objective of our research was to provide the negotiation facility to agents, working in an e-commerce domain, in a succinct way to reduce the number of negotiation messages, time consumption and network overhead on the platform. We used an e-commerce based bidding case study among agents to demonstrate the efficiency of our approach. The results showed that there was a lot of reduction in total time required for the bidding process.