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Abstract

The present study addresses the consequences of materialistic value-orientation (i.e. Acquisition Centrality) on the effect of the sense of control on religious experiences of the urban consumer class of Bangladesh. The central thesis is that economic transformation may contribute to the materialistic value-orientation and exert a control on the social experience; nonetheless, it would not exert any effect between the relationship of the Locus of Control and the role of religion. To test the thesis, the research investigates; given the economic growth begets acquisition centrality on a larger scale and these values, in return, often form the new purpose of social lives and emerge as a potential social force of modernity. Can religion as a century-old social institution continue to have strong-hold on the definition of social reality? To answer the question, this Cross-sectional research administered a survey of 1246 respondents from ten randomly selected distinct areas of Dhaka city and analyzed the data within a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. The findings suggest that the people with high (External) sense of control are more likely to be influenced by their religious experiences and the people with low (Internal) sense of control have high Acquisition Centrality; Acquisition Centrality strengthened the influence of External Locus of Control on the influence of religion.

Abstract

Evidence from literature shows that deviant behavior is on high side among undergraduates in Nigeria whereas some certain psychosocial factors causing this phenomenon have not been fully explored. This study examined whether age, gender, socio-economic status and attitude towards drug abuse determine deviant behavior among the undergraduate students. It adopted ex-post facto design. Simple random sampling technique was used to sample 269 participants. The Prescription Drug Attitudes Questionnaire (PDAQ) and Deviant Behavior Variety Scale (DBVS) were used to gather data from the participants. T-test analysis and multiple regression were used to test the formulated hypotheses. The results revealed that age, monthly allowance and attitude towards drug abuse have significant joint prediction of deviant behavior (R=.358 R2 =.128, F=10.594, p<.05) while only attitude towards drug abuse independently predicted deviant behavior (R=.236, R2 =.056 F = 17.112; p<.01). Also, there was a significant gender difference on deviant behavior [t (293) = 4.196, p<.01], where male respondents scored high significantly (M=4.09, SD=3.44) compared to female respondents (M=2.53, SD=2.31) on deviant behavior. It is therefore recommended that policy makers in educational sector and the governing council of tertiary institutions need to create awareness on the debilitating effects of drugs on students’ behavior, especially among males.

Abstract

The rapid development of computer technology over the past decades has brought about countless benefits across industries and social benefits as well—constant interpersonal connectivity is facilitated through numerous communication channels and social media outlets, energy-producing enterprises employ complex machinery management systems for increased efficiency, ease of access and safety, hedge funds make use of high-frequency trading algorithms to engage in trades happening at a fraction of a second, while medical professionals use predictive technologies to diagnose diseases and forecast viral outbreaks. Widespread adoption of technology necessitated the creation of regulatory frameworks that would ensure the safeguarding of rights and regulatory and judicial supervision over the exploitation of high technology. one such framework is the Gdpr, created due to the need for a comprehensive, contemporary legal regime governing the processing of personal data in a time when such data has become a commodity that is traded and sold in return for services or financial gain. However, in the authors’ view, the Gdpr suffers in terms of efficacy in the context of artificial intelligence-based technologies, and full compliance of data controllers and processors employing such technologies is unlikely to be achieved, particularly in regards to the right to information, the general principle of transparency and the right to erasure. The article provides an overview of these issues, including a discussion on the movement towards a regime of data ownership, and proposes legislative amendments as an effective method of mitigating these drawbacks.

Abstract

The present paper has identified two career models, the Protean Career and the Boundaryless Career, that can be considered to accommodate higher education graduates’ personal and professional needs, as well as the flexibility and adaptability requirements of the current labor market. The research used the data from a tracer study applied online to the graduates of the West University of Timisoara, with a response rate of 25% (which falls within the response rate for similar studies at the European level).

There has been an increased dynamic of the number of jobs compared to the short period since they have been active on the labor market, especially among male graduates. At the level of individual factors that can influence career success, the importance given to both objective and subjective values is observed. The results have shown that for graduates, income, job security, the possibility of promotion, the use of knowledge, but especially leisure time, are equal priorities, with consistent values in time for both stages of the study. Moreover, there has been a significant negative association between the variables of leisure time and job satisfaction (r (522) = -.17, p <.001). Given the mode of action, the high dynamics of jobs, which reflect the much-needed flexibility in the dynamic context of the labor market, and the values that have guided job search, often working and studying at the same time, the pattern of employment career that most accurately describes the career profile of graduates seems to be that of the Protean career (the path with a heart), also called the career of the 21st century.

Abstract

European countries interest for archaeological heritage, as part of the cultural landscape, was firstly expressed at the London Convention (1969), whose content was later revised by La Valetta Convention (1992). Romania joined this Convention in 2000, thus assuming the mission to protect and preserve the archaeological heritage, facing with massive economic development and urban expansion. Although we speak of a consecrated historical center, in Timisoara’s urban landscape preventive archaeology has become a reality only from 2004, when first researches were conducted. During the last few years, local infrastructure development has determined an extension of archaeological investigations over the historical area of the city, with major influences especially over public transportation (most of the times hampered, sometimes deviated, even blocked in the specific area, during archaeological research). Our approach focuses on multiple facets and implications of preventive archaeology over Timisoara’s urban landscape, from immediate, obvious issues (such as population’s satisfaction regarding archaeological investigations, their consequences (over access in the area, safety or transportation)), to long-term results (over local tourism, urban development or locals’ education for protecting and promoting cultural heritage).

Abstract

Alcohol use among students in tertiary institutions has long been established as a major public health concern. Also, previous research has shown that individuals with depression are particularly susceptible to alcohol use. There is, however, a paucity of empirical studies focusing on whether this relation is moderated by gender or buffered by a sense of inner meaning fulfilment. We assessed the moderating roles of gender and inner meaning fulfilment in the relationship between depression and alcohol use among university students in Nigeria. A correlational survey design was utilized. Data were collected from 1,173 students (57% male) aged between 16 and 36 years selected across six Nigerian universities. Data were subjected to SPSS v.23 for statistical analysis. Our findings show that depression, gender, inner meaning fulfilment significantly correlated with alcohol use. The effect of depression on alcohol was positive and significant (b=.439, se=.049, p=.000). Inner meaning fulfilment significantly moderated the relationship between depression and alcohol use (b=-.163, se=.034, p=.000). Depression was established as a significant risk factor for alcohol use, regardless of gender, and inner meaning fulfilment may buffer this association. Implications and recommendations are discussed.

Abstract

Normally, after the end of the exclusivity period offered by patents, medicines fall in public domain attracting competing companies to launch generic production that would bring down price levels. for different reasons, generic production of off-patented medicines does not always take place, allowing the main producer to continue dictate price levels. under some circumstances, this conduct may turn into exploitative abuse. However, excessive pricing itself is not anti-competitive unless other cost-and non-cost-related factors are present that turn excessive pricing a concern of competition law.

The article analyses the most relevant Eu case-law on abusive pricing in the pharmaceutical sector questioning what the right benchmark price is in the light of the United Brands two-limb test. As economic calculations cannot provide universal solutions in these cases, the article suggests that the United Brands test should not be the only method to judge exploitative abuse, but rather a combination of different methods that need to be applied to achieve reliable results. As emphasised in several cases, both economic calculations and other factors should be considered to avoid the risk of false-positive results. furthermore, exploitative abuse exists only in case excessive pricing is additionally unfair. However, judging unfairness, as discussed in this article, is a complicated task where the outcomes depend on the impact of the test results on the competition process.

Abstract

The aim of the article is to study both the magnitude and structure of internal labour reserves in the Baltic countries as well as to discuss potential policy measures that might help to activate these reserves. despite the record-high employment rates recently posted by Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, considerable internal labour reserves can still be found in some population groups. Among upper-middle-aged men, low employment might reflect a low incidence of lifelong learning, inadequate digital skills and rapidly deteriorating health condition. Low employment of youth mirrors the low prevalence of apprenticeships. in Lithuania and Latvia, there is also a postponed entry of young women into the labour market. These internal labour reserves total more than 25,000 people in Estonia, 55,000 in Latvia and 85,000 in Lithuania, corresponding to 4–7% of the total employment. The recent outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic may somewhat increase and change the structure of these labour reserves.

Abstract

Land-based Trans-Eurasian transport corridors, their current development and perspectives have been high on the political agenda in the last two decades not only in Europe and China but also in the transit countries such as russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. A number of conceptual initiatives are already being implemented. The Belt and road or the one Belt, one road (oBor) initiative on the Chinese side and the rail Baltica project from the European perspective have gained special attention. Big-scale infrastructural projects are also being implemented by transit countries, e.g., the construction of a motorway from China to Europe—from Kazakhstan via russia to Belarus—to facilitate the land-based shortcut for cargo transport within the Eurasian transport corridor. This article investigates the general framework conditions of infrastructural investments into projects related to Eurasian logistics and discusses strategic areas of intersection between the European activities and the new Silk Way. in the framework of the oBor initiative, this article also addresses the interaction of the Chinese–Kazakh–russian–Belarusian –polish railway transport, with a special focus on Belarusian–polish cross-border issues. The authors have participated in several projects focusing on transport corridors and discuss the research question of how different Eurasian land-based transport corridors can be integrated and which strategic role can the rail Baltica project play in the context of the new Silk route. The research is based on surveys, expert interviews, secondary data research and case studies.