Recent studies on the presence and activity of bats at high elevations show, surprisingly, that large numbers of bats cross the Alps up to 2,500 m a. s. l. This study takes the next step: to investigate bat activity at an elevation above 3,000 m a. s. l. The main study site was located on the top of Hoher Sonnblick at 3,106 m a. s. l. (Salzburg, Austria). Bat activity was monitored during September and October 2014, and permanently from March to November 2015, with an automated recording device. To compare bat activity at a lower location, a study site at 2,273 m a. s. l. was also monitored from May to October 2015. Contrary to our expectations, we found bats present at 3,106 m from mid-April to mid-September. However, periods of bat activity at these high altitudes were shorter than at lower elevations and were interrupted by longer periods with no activity. Among the recorded species there were all the long-distance migrants in Europe: Nyctalus leisleri, N. noctula, Pipistrellus nathusii and Vespertilio murinus. Eptesicus nilssonii, a predominantly sedentary species, was also recorded on the mountain top as well as Pipistrellus pygmaeus. Bat activity was linked to milder weather conditions. However, we did record bats at wind speeds of up to 12.2 m/s and temperatures as low as –2.1 °C.
The medieval mine of Jeroným (Jerome) is one of the most important bat localities known in western Bohemia. Ten bat species have been detected there, including Myotis emarginatus which is very rare in the western part of the Czech Republic. Numbers of wintering bats have been monitored since 1995 and show an upward trend there, even after the opening of a part of the mine to the public during summer (since 2014). The highest numbers of wintering bats correspond to unusually cold winters in 2017 (347 inds.) and 2013 (156 inds.). Mistnetting during the swarming period has been carried out annually since 2009. Numbers of netted bats have been decreasing, probably due to the existence of a new visitor centre built near the entrance to the underground. Species compositions recorded during the hibernation and swarming periods are very similar, but proportions of particular species are different. Myotis daubentonii, M. myotis and M. nattereri were the most abundant bat species during hibernation, while Myotis nattereri, M. daubentonii and Plecotus auritus during the swarming period. Swarming numbers of Myotis mystacinus and M. brandtii have been growing in the last several years. Myotis bechsteinii was detected repeatedly, while Eptesicus nilssonii and Myotis emarginatus (wintering) and Nyctalus noctula (swarming) only once each. The swarming activity of bats was highest 2.5–5.5 hours after sunset. In total, 436 bats were ringed, about 6% of them were recaptured at the site. Some of the ringed bats were recorded at other localities, Myotis myotis at distances up to 39 km, and M. nattereri up to 21 km.
The behavioural repertoire of the edible dormouse (Glis glis) was investigated in the laboratory using night vision cameras. Analysis was carried out for 106 h 44 min of video records of behaviour. The main forms of behaviour during the active period were comfort, exploratory, feeding, scent marking, defensive and social actions. They were interrupted by sitting still or feeding. Occurrences of biased activity were revealed, in which elements of a concrete behaviour do not have a functional meaning (e.g. grooming). Typical examples of some forms of behaviour are illustrated. In social behaviour, the most common types of encounters characteristic for rodents were presented. From the total number (419) of registered encounters the most frequent were agonistic ones (46.3%), represented by aggressive attacks, avoidances, chasings, bites and fights. Identification encounters (41.1%) were less frequent and of two types: nasal and naso-lateral. Friendly encounters were observed (12.6%) much less often: mainly sitting in contact and allogrooming. This distribution illustrates the territoriality and mainly solitary way of life in this species. The systematization of the characteristic behavioural elements can serve as a methodological basis for experimental ethological studies, including pairings, assessment of the level of stress and the study of behavioural differentiation of closely related species.
Colin Groves was one of the world’s leading anthropologists, primatologists and mammalian taxonomists. This bibliography with 775 entries contains all his publications, including books, chapters in books, scientific and popular articles, book reviews, obituaries and letters or articles in newspapers. There is a list of 62 taxa described by Colin Groves and six eponyms.
The bibliography provides a list of publications on the golden jackal in Slovakia coming from the period 1955–2018. In total 111 citations are listed – 15 (13.5%) scientific articles in indexed journals, 19 (17.1%) other scientific articles in non-indexed journals, 3 (2.7%) scientific and popular books, 20 (18.0%) book chapters and conference papers, 7 (6.3%) conference abstracts, 3 (2.7%) qualification papers, 24 (21.6%) popular articles, 16 (14.4%) reports or other papers and 4 (3.6%) laws and legislative regulations. Between 1995 and 2007, on average two articles were published per year, between 2008 and 2018, it was seven articles on average.
Between 2010 and 2017, records of carnivores in the Tabuk Province were gathered using camera traps, live traps and direct observations. Altogether seven species of carnivores representing four families were recorded: two felines, Felis margarita and Panthera pardus nimr, a hyaenid, Hyaena hyaena, a mustelid, Mellivora capensis and three canids, Canis lupus, Vulpes cana and Vulpes vulpes. For each species, a list of localities is given and its current distribution is described. Unfortunately, many of the reported specimens were killed by hunters or local people. Major threats to carnivores in the Tabuk Province, such as killing and hanging, are discussed and potential solutions are suggested.
The presented data are based on the evidence of the pygmy hippopotamus breeding in six zoological gardens of the Czech Republic in 1934–2017. The Prague and Ústí nad Labem Zoos finished its keeping at the beginning of the 21th century due to technical reasons; Dvůr Králové, Jihlava, Olomouc and Plzeň Zoos continued. The respective zoos maintained altogether 75 individuals, 24 were imported and 51 were born. The births were registered in the period 1986–2017: 24 in Dvůr Králové, ten in Ústí nad Labem, seven in Olomouc, five in Jihlava, four in Prague and one in Plzeň. The earliest births were documented in two females which both delivered at the age of 5 years and 8 months. Both these females also showed the highest number of young documented in the Czech zoos (nine each). The births occurred especially in autumn and early spring seasons. The shortest period between two subsequent births in the same female was 1 year, 2 months, 25 days. The sex ratio of the young was 18 : 33 (♂:♀). Of the 51 juveniles, eight (6 ♂♂ : 2 ♀♀) died on the day of birth, four (2 : 2) during the first week and three (0 : 3) within the first half of the first year. The longest age, almost 38 years, was reached by a female from the Dvůr Králové Zoo.
We list over a hundred vernacular names for Cricetus cricetus, which are in use in English and in languages spoken within the distribution range of the species. These names belong to 36 languages (including three historical languages: Old Slavonic, Old Czech, Old High German) from nine linguistic groups: Slavic (13 spoken languages), Uralic (6), Turkic (4), German (3), Romanic (3), Romani (1), Iranian (1), Mongolic (1), and Chinese (1). The two currently most used names (Hamster, Cricetus) have roots in Slavic languages. “Hamster” and names related to it (Hamsterul, Homyak, Chomik, Komak) originate from the Old Slavonic “Homěstor”. “Skrzeczeck”/“Skreczecz” (Polish) is an example of onomatopoeia, an imitation of the hamster’s vocalization and is closely associated with various names in other Slavic languages (Skrečok, Křeč, Křeček, Chrček, Hrček, Hrčak, Gerčik), German (Grentsch, Krietsch), Romanian (Hârciog), and Hungarian (Hörcsög), and with the scientific tautonym Cricetus cricetus. Cricetus was first used by Albertus Magnus in the 13th century.
Across Europe, the edible dormouse (Glis glis) and the garden dormouse (Eliomys quercinus) are listed as protected species. In areas where households are close to habitats where these dormice are present, they easily penetrate into the houses. While dormice are admired by the public as cute animals, conflicts are common when dormice enter houses and cause damage, mostly on the wooden construction parts, insulation or electrical installations. Another source of nuisance is that property owners are faced with damage to stored food or dormouse urine/faeces are deposited and represent a potential source of zoonoses. In addition, the nocturnal activity of dormice disturbs the sleep regime of sensitive household owners. Here we show that while in many countries the dormice have high legal protection status, apart from few local exceptions, the house owners get little practical help from the governmental agencies on how to tackle the conflicting issue of sharing their property with protected rodents. We outline reasons why dormice enter households and identify the most common ways the animals get in. We also provide some practical recommendations on how to deal with the conflicts that arise.