The objective of the present study was to develop a robust, simple, economical and sensitive HPLC-UV method using the “quality-by-design” approach for the estimation of irinotecan (IRI) in marketed formulations. RP-HPLC method was developed by applying Box-Behnken design with Hyper-Clone (Phenomenex®) C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm id, particle size 5 µm, ODS 130 Å) as a stationary phase. Acetonitrile and 20 mmol L−1 potassium phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) containing 0.1 % triethylamine in a ratio of 45:55 % (V/V) was used as a mobile phase. The sample was injected in a volume of 20 µL into the HPLC system. UV detector at 254 nm was used to estimate and quantify IRI. Isocratic elution was opted while the flow rate was maintained at 0.75 mL min−1. The retention time of IRI was found to be 4.09 min. The responses were found to be linear for concentration range of 0.5 to 18.0 µg mL−1 and the coefficient of determination value was found to be 0.9993. Percent relative standard deviation for intra- and inter-day precisions was found in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 %. LOD and LOQ values were found to be 4.87 and 14.75 ng mL−1, resp. Robustness studies confirmed that the developed method is robust with RSD of a maximum 0.1 %. The method is simple, precise, sensitive, robust and economical making it applicable to the estimation of IRI in an injectable formulation.
Effects of paraben toxicity, i.e., endocrine-disruption properties, are in the focus of researchers for decades, but still – they are a hot subject of debate. Parabens are aliphatic esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, which are widely used as antimicrobial agents for the preservation of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and foods. Mostly used parabens are methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben. Although the toxicity of parabens is reported in animals and in in vitro studies, it cannot be taken for granted when discussing hazards for human health due to an unrealistic exposure -safety profile. Many studies have demonstrated that parabens are non-teratogenic, non-mutagenic, non-carcinogenic and the real evidence for their toxicity in humans has not been established. For now, methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben are considered safe for use in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals within the recommended range of doses. Regarding alternatives for parabens, a variety of approaches have been proposed, but every substitute would need to be tested rigorously for toxicity and safety.
The influence of different chromatographic conditions and the process of spot visualization on determining the limit of detection as well as quantification (LOD and LOQ) of meloxicam by TLC-densitometric technique was estimated. Of all chromatographic conditions tested, the lowest limiting values, thus the best sensitivity, in the NP-TLC system was achieved on silica gel 60F254 and neutral aluminum oxide plates developed with the mobile phase consisting of ethyl acetate/toluene/n-butylamine (2:2:1, V/V/V). In the case of the RP-TLC method, a mixture of methanol/water (8:2, V/V) enabled densitometric detection of meloxicam at the lowest concentration level on RP-8F254 and RP-18F254 plates. Additionally, the smallest LOD value of meloxicam ensured crystalline violet and gentian violet as visualization agents on silica gel 60F254 and neutral aluminum oxide 150F254 plates, resp. Comparison of the densitometrically obtained spectra of meloxicam drug and its standard after the use of appropriate visualization agents could be a good and cheap alternative tool for the identification of meloxicam as an active pharmaceutical ingredient.
The glyoxalase system, particularly glyoxalase-I (GLO-I), has been approved as a potential target for cancer treatment. In this study, a set of structurally diverse polyphenolic natural compounds were investigated as potential GLO-I inhibitors. Ellagic acid was found, computationally and experimentally, to be the most potent GLO-I inhibitor among the tested compounds which showed an IC50 of 0.71 mmol L−1. Its binding to the GLO-I active site seemed to be mainly driven by ionic interaction via its ionized hydroxyl groups with the central Zn ion and Lys156, along with other numerous hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Due to its unique and rigid skeleton, it can be utilized to search for other novel and potent GLO-I inhibitors via computational approaches such as pharmacophore modeling and similarity search methods. Moreover, an inspection of the docked poses of the tested compounds showed that chlorogenic acid and dihydrocaffeic acid could be considered as lead compounds worthy of further optimization.
Eplerenone is a drug that protects the cardiovascular system. 11α-Hydroxycanrenone is a key intermediate in eplerenone synthesis. We found that although the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system in Aspergillus ochraceus strain MF018 could catalyse the conversion of canrenone to 11α-hydroxycanrenone, its biocatalytic efficiency is low. To improve the efficiency of 11α-hydroxycanrenone production, the CYP monooxygenase-coding gene of MF018 was predicted and cloned based on whole-genome sequencing results. A recombinant A. ochraceus strain MF010 with the high expression of CYP monooxygenase was then obtained through homologous recombination. The biocatalytic rate of this recombinant strain reached 93 % at 60 h without the addition of organic solvents or surfactants and was 17–18 % higher than that of the MF018 strain. Moreover, the biocatalytic time of the MF010 strain was reduced by more than 30 h compared with that of the MF018 strain. These results show that the recombinant A. ochraceus strain MF010 can overcome the limitation of substrate biocatalytic efficiency and thus holds a high poten tial for application in the industrial production of eplerenone.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is involved in the activation and differentiation of T-helper cells. Uncontrolled activated T cells play a key role in the pathophysiology by stimulating inflammation and autoimmune diseases like arthritis, psoriasis and Crohn’s disease. T cells activation can be suppressed either by preventing IL-2 production or blocking the IL-2 interaction with its receptor. Hence, IL-2 is now emerging as a target for novel therapeutic approaches in several autoimmune disorders. This study was carried out to set up an effective virtual screening (VS) pipeline for IL-2. Four docking/scoring approaches (FRED, MOE, GOLD and Surflex-Dock) were compared in the re-docking process to test their performance in producing correct binding modes of IL-2 inhibitors. Surflex-Dock and FRED were the best in predicting the native pose in its top-ranking position. Shapegauss and CGO scoring functions identified the known inhibitors of IL-2 in top 1, 5 and 10 % of library and differentiated binders from non-binders efficiently with average AUC of > 0.9 and > 0.7, resp. The applied docking protocol served as a basis for the VS of a large database that will lead to the identification of more active compounds against IL-2.
Manilkara kauki L. Dubard is a tropical plant in the genus Manilkara of family Sapotaceae. This study investigated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant and antityrosinase activities in different parts of M. kauki (fruits, leaves, seeds, stem barks and woods) and in fractions of stem barks. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanol and aqueous crude extracts of different parts of M. kauki ranged from 10.87 to 176.56 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents) per gram of crude extract and 14.33 to 821.67 mg QE (quercetin equivalents) per gram of crude extract, resp. Leaves and stem barks exhibited higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities than fruits, seeds and woods. Stem barks were sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water and then the fractionated extracts were subjected to antioxidant and antityrosinase activities testing. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of stem barks exhibited higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant and antityrosinase activities than the n-hexane and aqueous extracts. Moreover, ethyl acetate extract of M. kauki stem exhibited the highest antityrosinase activity. It may be a potential source of tyrosinase inhibitors for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.
This study explores the use of a statistical model to build a design space for freeze-drying two formulations with ibuprofen. A 2 × 3 factorial experimental design was used to evaluate independent variables (filling volume and annealing time) and responses as residual moisture content, specific surface area and reconstitution time. A statistical model and response surface plots were generated to define the interactions among the selected variables. The models constructed for both formulations suggest that 1 mL of filled volume and no annealing should be used to achieve optimal residual moisture content, specific surface area and reconstitution time. The proposed models were validated with additional experiments, in which the responses observed were mainly in close agreement with the predicted ones. Additionally, the established models demonstrate the reliability of the evaluation procedure in predicting the selected responses.
This study investigates antioxidant capacity and protective effects of phenolic compounds oleuropein (OLP) and hydroxytyrosol (HT), present in olive oil and olive leaves, against H2O2-induced DNA damage in human peripheral lymphocytes. Antioxidant potency was determined using the measurement of radical-scavenging activity (ABTS∙+ assay), ferric reducing power (FRAP assay) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC assay). Both substances were found to be potent antioxidant agents due to their free radical-scavenging activities. Antigenotoxic effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol against H2O2-induced damage in human lymphocytes were evaluated in vitro by alkaline comet assay. At tested concentrations (1, 5, 10 µmol L−1), oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol did not induce a significant increase of primary DNA damage in comparison with the negative control. Pretreatment of human lymphocytes with each of the substances for 120 min produced a dose-dependent reduction of primary DNA damage in the tested cell type. Hydroxytyrosol showed a better protective effect against H2O2-induced DNA breaks than oleuropein which could be associated with their free radical-scavenging efficacy.