The аim is to study family influence on formation of eating and weight disorders. The concept of an “alimentary family” is defined as a family with dysfunctional, disharmonious relationships, which is a prerequisite for emergence and support of distorted patterns of eating behaviour, leading in the future to children’s eating and weight disorders.
Methods: The research was carried out using the method of a thematic retrospective analysis (MTRA)-food, which is a variant of the narrative method, the questionnaire "Parental convictions and control tactics as for eating behaviour of their children during food taking". The data was processed by the content analysis method; Fisher's φ-criterion was used to compare differences between the groups.
Results: The research has allowed us to clarify eating behavioural characteristics and to identify the “roots” of eating disorders. Various forms of forcing at eating, direct and indirect ways of making children to eat or blocking of eating are manifested in ignoring of children’s taste preferences, their desire and readiness to eat. Parents often use manipulative techniques influencing children’s eating behaviour (encouragement, inducement, reward promises, approval, recognition, warning, or switching attention), direct means of influence (coercion: prohibition, restriction, rejection, destructive criticism, intimidation, deprivation from various pleasures). There is the statistical confirmation that parents’ use of manipulative means and / or direct coercion towards their children during eating predetermines formation of pathological processes of corporeality, attitudes and psychological mechanisms stipulating eating disorders.
Conclusions: The research results indicate necessity to develop psychotherapeutic programs for people with eating disorders, as well as programs to help parents improve family relationships and, accordingly, to apply correctional effects on their children.
The issue of parental neglect is a constantly topical one. Neglect is not only the lack of satisfying basic needs, but also the lack of ensuring a sense of security, belonging, and insufficient physical, emotional or verbal closeness with the child. Poor parental care, lack of a sense of closeness and availability of the parent, along with other environmental factors (e.g. addictions, diseases and mental disorders in the family) result in abnormal formation of the child's personality, and can also be associated with depression, anxiety, self-harm or suicide attempts.
The aim of the study was to present the clinical cases of two teenage patients (AA. – 13 years old, BB. – 16 years old) staying in the I Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Early Intervention in Lublin (Department for Children and Youth), whose mental health problems were caused by a constant neglect on the part of parents.
Case reports: The patients came from dysfunctional families in which members showed a tendency to addiction (alcohol) and were emotionally and physically absent from the lives of the girls. Due to considerable upbringing problems, girls were hospitalized many times, both in paediatric wards and in psychiatric wards for children and adolescents, with various medical diagnoses.
Conclusions: The presented cases of two patients indicate a potential cause-and-effect relationship between parental neglect, coexisting environmental factors (addictions of family members) and abnormal formation of the child's personality, self-harm or suicide attempts. In such family systems, it is extremely important, apart from a court-appointed family guardian, to introduce a family assistant to provide emotional or advisory support.
The Rorschach test is the most well-known psychological test ever invented; it has captured the imagination of entire generations of clinicians, researchers, artists, writers, and ordinary participants in mass culture. Yet, no psychological test has faced such heavily emotional criticism. The drastically ambiguous status of this test in the community of psychologists can be call an identity crisis. This is the diagnosis presented in the book titled Assessment Using the Rorschach Inkblot Test by James P. Choca and Edward D. Rossini, American professors of clinical psychology currently affiliated with the Roosevelt University in Chicago. It was this book that inspired the present article. Choca and Rossini claim that the crisis associated with the use of the inkblot test stems from the lack of understanding of what the essence of this test actually is and from its improper usage. They also indicate realistic and practical ways to overcome this crisis.
Faced with the excessively elaborate systems for processing and interpreting the material obtained using the test, the authors attempt to create a short version of the inkblot test (Basic Rorschach). In the short version it is possible to use a smaller number of categories or even limit oneself to use only four plates instead of ten. Choca and Rossini admit that the Basic Rorschach requires further studies; they are also willing to give psychologists a great degree of freedom and the possibility of deciding what to take into account and what to ignore in the interpretation of results. They also propose to introduce a new final phase of the test, which, in a way, involves the examinee in the process of analyzing his or her responses.
In this paper I address the changes proposed by the authors, concerning both the procedure and the manner of categorizing and interpreting responses. For this purpose, I use own clinical experience and the results of my empirical research.
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of pigs, leading to economic losses around the world. Attenuated live vaccines with CSFV antigens have played an important role in the prevention and control of the disease. Porcine kidney 15 (PK15) cells have been widely used for the propagation of CSFV, but this cell line is not efficient or homogeneously susceptible to viral infection.
Material and Methods
To achieve a homogeneous PK15 cell line which enabled high titre replication of CSFV, we used the limiting dilution cell cloning method.
We developed two cell clones, PK15-1A6 and PK15-3B1, which respectively have high- and low-permissive phenotypes to CSFV infection. The PK15-1A6, PK15-3B1, and PK15 parent cells showed different characteristics in cell proliferation rate, susceptibility to CSFV infection, and CSFV production. The mean virus titres per millilitre reflected by TCID50 values in PK15-1A6, PK15-3B1, and PK15 parent cells were 106.85, 103.63, and 104.74, respectively.
The PK15-1A6 cell clone is more permissive to CSFV infection than the PK15 parent cells. The screened high-permissive cells will be useful for CSFV propagation and vaccine development in vitro, and facilitate research on the pathogenicity of CSFV.
In canine and feline populations, the number of neoplasm cases continues to increase around the world. Attempts are being made in centres of research to identify new biomarkers that speed up and improve the quality of oncological diagnostics and therapy in human and animal tumour patients. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a promising biomarker with increasing relevance to human oncology, but as yet with less application in veterinary oncology. The expression of COX-2 increases significantly during pathological processes involving inflammation, pain or fever. It is also overexpressed in humans presenting various types of tumours and in selected types of tumours in animals, particularly in dogs. This article discusses the expression of COX-2 in canine and feline tumours, the importance of COX-2 as a biomarker with diagnostic, therapeutic, prognostic and predictive relevance in oncology, and the clinical significance of inhibiting COX-2 overexpression in tumours.
The aim of this study was to determine the content of fatty acids in eggs harvested from two edible subspecies of Polish-bred common garden snail from the Cornu genus, as well as this content in the retail-ready product obtained from these eggs.
Material and Methods
Material for the study consisted of eggs from two subspecies of edible snails: the small (Cornu aspersum aspersum), and large (Cornu aspersum maxima) common garden snails. The eggs studied were in two forms, the first of which had undergone initial processing to the half-product stage and the second of which was the final product available on the Polish market under the name “Snail Eggs”. The gas chromatography method was used to determine the content of fatty acids.
More than 75% of the studied fats were saturated fatty acids, dominated by palmitic and stearic acids. The average content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 0.37%, and it was a combination of two acids: linoleic (C18:2n6c), and its trans isomer (C18:2n6t). No significant differences were found comparing individual fatty acids content between the two species’ eggs as half-products, or between the half-products and the final product.
The fat in raw and processed eggs of common garden snails holds low nutritional value, and the processing did not affect the content of fatty acids.
The aim of this study was to present two outbreaks of bovine abortion due to Leptospira infection in cattle herds located in the northern part of Sicily (Italy). The animals were positive for Leptospira interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo in a microscopic agglutination test (MAT).
Material and Methods
A total of 23 Charolaise cows (farm A) and 75 Limousine bulls and Cinisara and Modicana cows (farm B) were enrolled in this study. The blood samples were collected from all subjects at the following time points: before a cycle of intramuscular treatment with oxytetracycline dihydrate (T0), after 5–6 weeks from the treatment (T1), and every 10 weeks until seronegativisation (T2 in Farm A and T3 in Farm B). A serological test (MAT) was used for the diagnosis of leptospirosis.
Two samples from farm A (2/23) and 29 samples from farm B (29/75) were positive to Leptospira interrogans, serogroup Sejroe, serovar Hardjo in the MAT. Leptospira spp. DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the urine sample of one positive cow on farm A, and in placenta and brain samples belonging to one aborted foetus on farm B.
It is important to use serological and molecular diagnostic techniques complementarily to identify infected individuals.
Based on analysis of available genome sequences, five gene lineages of MHC class I molecules (MHC I-U, -Z, -S, -L and -P) and one gene lineage of MHC class II molecules (MHC II-D) have been identified in Osteichthyes. In the latter lineage, three MHC II molecule sublineages have been identified (MHC II-A, -B and -E). As regards MHC class I molecules in Osteichthyes, it is important to take note of the fact that the lineages U and Z in MHC I genes have been identified in almost all fish species examined so far. Phylogenetic studies into MHC II molecule genes of sublineages A and B suggest that they may be descended from the genes of the sublineage named A/B that have been identified in spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus). The sublineage E genes of MHC II molecules, which represent the group of non-polymorphic genes with poor expression in the tissues connected with the immune system, are present in primitive fish, i.e. in paddlefish, sturgeons and spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), as well as in cyprinids (Cyprinidae), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Full elucidation of the details relating to the organisation and functioning of the particular components of the major histocompatibility complex in Osteichthyes can advance the understanding of the evolution of the MHC molecule genes and the immune mechanism.
Common parasites of the European bison include gastro-intestinal and pulmonary nematodes, liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica), tapeworms, and protozoa of the genus Coccidia. This study compared the extensiveness and intensities of European bison parasitic invasions in three north-eastern Polish forests in different seasons and queried the role of parasitological monitoring in sanitary and hygienic control of feeding places.
Material and Methods
Faecal samples were collected in the Białowieża, Knyszyńska, and Borecka Forests between 2014 and 2016, as were some from an area neighbouring the Białowieża Forest outside the Natura 2000 protected area. Parasites were detected in individual samples with the flotation, decanting and Baermann methods.
The eggs of Trichostrongylidae, Aonchotheca sp., Nematodirus sp., Strongyloides spp., Trichuris sp., Moniezia spp., and Fasciola hepatica; the larvae of Dictyocaulus viviparus; and the oocytes of Eimeria spp. were identified. Significant variation in invasion intensity and diversity was seen by origin and season. The relationships were assessed first by univariable tests and next multivariately, when origin and season emerged as the major risk factors for exposure to most of the parasites.
The differences in the level of parasitic infection between the forests did not have implications for its sufficiency to cause clinical symptoms. However, the associations and risk factors found enable the necessary preventive measures to be taken to protect the E. bison from exposure or decrease the risks. Additionally, parasitological monitoring is appropriate as the method of sanitary and hygienic control of European bison winter feeding places. Threats to public health through adventitious invasions by zoonotic factors such as F. hepatica have been identified.
Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) infection causes watery diarrhoea, vomiting, anorexia, and weight loss, especially among neonatal piglets, inflicting on them morbidity and mortality potentially reaching 90%–100%. Despite it being known that certain mammalian cell phases are arrested by PEDV, the mechanisms have not been elucidated, and PEDV pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study determined the effect of an epidemic PEDV strain on cell cycle progression.
Material and Methods
We observed the effect of the PEDV SHpd/2012 strain on an infected Vero cell cycle through flow cytometry and Western blot, investigating the interrelationships of cell-cycle arrest, the DNA damage–signalling pathway caused by PEDV and the phosphorylation levels of the key molecules Chk.2 and H2A.X involved upstream and downstream in this pathway.
PEDV induced Vero cell-cycle arrest at the G1/G0 phase. The phosphorylation levels of Chk.2 and H2A.X increased with the prolongation of PEDV infection, and no significant cell-cycle arrest was observed after treatment with ATM or Chk.2 inhibitors. The proliferation of PEDV was also inhibited by treatment with ATM or Chk.2 inhibitors.
PEDV-induced cell-cycle arrest is associated with activation of DNA damage–signalling pathways. Our findings elucidate the molecular basis of PEDV replication and provide evidence to support further evaluation of PEDV pathogenesis.