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Analysis of bovine tuberculosis transmission in Jalisco, Mexico through whole-genome sequencing

Abstract

Introduction

Bovine tuberculosis, caused by M. bovis, is endemic in Mexico and has had a big impact on public health. Jalisco is considered to be an important dairy region in the country, accounting for approximately 19% of the total milk production. Within Jalisco, the region of Altos Sur holds the largest proportion of the cattle inventory of the state.

Material and Methods

To determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in Altos Sur, Jalisco, as well as M. bovis genetic diversity, sampling of tissue (lymph nodes, lungs, and liver) from Holstein cattle was performed in four abattoirs belonging to three municipalities of this region (Tepatitlán de Morelos, San Miguel el Alto, and Arandas). Spoligotyping and whole-genome sequencing were carried out to assess the genetic relationships of M. bovis strains circulating in this area, as well as a comparison to isolates from other places in Mexico.

Results

Prevalence was 15.06%, and distribution similar among the three municipalities. The most frequent spoligotypes were SB0673, SB121, and SB0145. Whole-genome sequencing revealed three main clades (I, II, III), but isolates did not show clustering by region.

Conclusion

Phylogenetic analysis suggested ongoing transmission between herds of the different regions, and no unique source of infection was determined. This hinders efforts under the national program for the control and eradication of the disease, so serious attention must be paid to rural regions such as Altos Sur in order to improve its success.

Open access
Seroprevalence, clinical, and pathological characteristics of canine leishmaniasis in a central region of Colombia

Abstract

Introduction

Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease which is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Canids are the most important reservoir of the parasites; however, limited data are available on the species of Leishmania prevalent in these animals and their impact on human health. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs from an inter-Andean region of Colombia during July 2016–July 2017, and to describe the clinical and histopathological features of the disease.

Material and Methods

A total of 155 dogs were subjected to clinical examination and a serological test for detection of antibodies against Leishmania. Necropsy was carried out on positive animals and tissue samples were processed by routine histopathology.

Results

Altogether 19 dogs were positive in the serological test, establishing a 12% seroprevalence of Leishmania. Clinical examination and necropsy revealed exfoliative and ulcerative dermatitis with haemorrhagic borders on the ears, head, nose, and legs. Histopathology revealed severe multifocal dermatitis with abundant Leishmania amastigotes within the cytoplasm of phagocytic cells, depletion of lymphocytes in lymphoid tissues, interstitial pneumonia, and interstitial nephritis. Tissue samples were positive for Leishmania by PCR.

Conclusions

The macro- and microscopic changes correlated with the presence of Leishmania as established by serological test and PCR.

Open access
Short-term heart-rate variability in healthy small and medium-sized dogs over a five-minute measuring period

Abstract

Introduction

Five-minute heart-rate variability (HRV) measurement is a useful tool for assessing the autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance in humans, but there are no studies on healthy dogs. The aim of the study was, therefore, to provide the reference ranges in small and medium-sized breeds for short-term HRV time and frequency domain (TFD) analyses.

Material and Methods

A total of 79 healthy dogs were included in the study between 2015 and 2019. Grouping by age with the breakpoint at six years and subgrouping by reproductive status and sex was imposed. All the dogs were included after physical and cardiological examinations and blood analyses. The TFD of HRV were analysed from a five-minute-long digital ECG recording after removal of non-sinus complexes.

Results

There were no statistically significant differences in any TFD parameters between age, reproductive status or sex groups. A mild increase in all time domain parameters and the high-frequency (HF) band was observed in older dogs, and the low frequency (LF):HF ratio decreased in these dogs. In males, the time domain parameters and HF band increased slightly.

Conclusions

The normal ranges for HRV derived from short-term ECG recording in the usual clinical environment now have proposed reference ranges. Our findings suggest that accommodation time, age, sex, or reproductive status do not influence the results derived from these recordings, indicating that this method is reliable for assessing the ANS function in small and medium-sized dog breeds.

Open access
Utility of urinary markers in the assessment of renal dysfunction in familial glomerulonephritis in Dobermann dogs

Abstract

Introduction

Dobermann dogs are reportedly predisposed to familial glomerulonephropathy. Proteinuria is a hallmark of canine familial glomerular diseases. The identification of glomerular abnormalities in breeds so predisposed is of great importance in improving breeding policy. Therefore, markers that allow the detection and localisation of renal damage are needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the urinary concentrations of immunoglobulin G (uIgG), retinol-binding protein (uRBP), and Tamm–Horsfall protein (uTHP) in a family of Dobermanns with proteinuria and compare these concentrations with the corresponding values in healthy controls.

Material and Methods

Ten dogs of the Dobermann breed with proteinuria (five with a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) of 0.5–1 and five with a UPC >1) and twelve healthy dogs were enrolled. An ELISA was performed to measure uIgG, uRBP, and uTHP, and these proteins were quantified in relation to urinary creatinine (uCrea).

Results

uIgG/uCr and uRBP/uCr were significantly higher in the family of Dobermanns than in the healthy dogs. A significant difference in the uTHP/uCr value was found only in dogs with a UPC of >1.

Conclusions

IgG seems to facilitate the diagnosis of primary hereditary glomerulopathy in Dobermanns. Moreover, in affected dogs, proteinuria characterisation seems to be a promising alternative option for the detection and localisation of renal lesions.

Open access
Effects of α-enolase gene silencing on reproductive-related hormone receptor expression and steroid hormone synthesis of primary granulosa cells from goose F1 follicles

Abstract

Introduction

Enolases are enzymes in the glycolytic pathway, which catalyse the reversible conversion of D-2-phosphoglycerate into phosphoenol pyruvate in the second half of the pathway. In this research, the effects of α-enolase (ENO1) on steroid reproductive-related hormone receptor expression and on hormone synthesis of primary granulosa cells from goose F1 follicles were studied.

Material and Methods

Primary granulosa cells from the F1 follicles of eight healthy 8-month-old Zi geese were separated and cultured. An ENO1 interference expression vector was designed, constructed and transfected into primary cultured granulosa cells. The mRNA expression levels of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinising hormone receptor (LHR), oestrogen receptor α (ER α), oestrogen receptor β (ER β), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in the cells were evaluated as were the secretion levels of oestradiol, activin, progesterone, testosterone, inhibin and follistatin in cell supernatant.

Results

α-enolase gene silencing reduced the expression of FSHR, LHR, ERα, ERβ, GHR, and IGFBP-1 mRNA, potentiated the secretion of oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and follistatin of granulosa cells, and hampered the production of activin and inhibin.

Conclusion

ENO1 can regulate the reactivity of granulosa cells to reproductive hormones and regulate cell growth and development by adjusting their hormone secretion and reproductive hormone receptor expression. The study provided a better understanding of the functional action of ENO1 in the processes of goose ovary development and egg laying.

Open access
PCR based prevalence study of Francisella tularensis in Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Mykolaiv oblasts during 2015–2018

Abstract

Introduction

Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, which is endemic to Ukraine. The aim of this work was to provide screening of different field samples (rodent tails, ticks, pellets, water, and hay) to obtain an actual picture of the tularaemia epizootic situation in the Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Mykolaiv oblasts.

Material and Methods

Samples were collected using the flag method (for ticks) and break-back traps (for rodents). Also, hay, water and owl pellets were collected for study. The F. tularensis genetic material in samples was detected using a 16S qPCR.

Results

It was found that in Kharkiv oblast, 23% of collected samples were positive for F. tularensis, in Dnipropetrovsk oblast 1.9%, and in Mykolaiv oblast 0.4%.

Conclusion

Among the sample types, 34.7% of ticks, 1.8% of rodents, and 36.4% of pellets were positive for F. tularensis. The most frequent carriers of F. tularensis were the D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks (74.2% and 29.3%, respectively, of positive results).

Open access
Potential role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the pathogenesis of Marek’s disease

Abstract

Introduction

Marek’s disease virus (MDV) can cause malignant T-cell lymphomas and immunosuppression in chickens. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) not only plays a critical role in inhibiting T-cell responses, but also contributes to multiple aspects of tumour progression. The aim of this study was to reveal the potential role of MIF in the pathogenesis of MDV infection.

Material and Methods

MIF gene expression levels were measured by using real-time PCR. Expression was assayed at different times in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells and tissue samples of SPF chickens infected with different MDV strains and fold change was calculated by the 2–△△CT method.

Results

The expression of MIF was significantly downregulated (p < 0.05 and FC > 2) in CEF cells infected with the very virulent MDV RB1B strain at 48 h post infection (hpi) and in the skin and spleen at 14 days post infection (dpi). The reduction of MIF expression was also found in CEF cells infected by reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), and MDV vaccine strain CVI988 or in HD11 cells stimulated with TLR2, 3, 4, and 7 ligands. Interestingly, MIF expression decreased continuously from 7 to 28 dpi in the thymus after RB1B virus infection while it increased after CVI988 virus infection. Upregulated expression of MIF was found in CEF infected with RB1B at 96 hpi and in the spleen and skin at 21 and 28 dpi.

Conclusion

The present study revealed the different expression pattern of MIF in response to MDV infection and indicated that MIF level may be associated with MDV pathogenesis.

Open access
African swine fever virus – the possible role of flies and other insects in virus transmission

Abstract

African swine fever (ASF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease of pigs and wild boars. It presents a serious threat to pig production worldwide, and since 2007, ASF outbreaks have been recorded in the Caucasus, Eastern Europe, and the Baltic States. In 2014, the disease was detected in Poland. ASF is on the list of notifiable diseases of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Due to the lack of an available vaccine and treatment, the countermeasures against the disease consist in early detection of the virus in the pig population and control of its spread through the elimination of herds affected by disease outbreaks. Knowledge of the potential vectors of the virus and its persistence in the environment is crucial to prevent further disease spread and to understand the new epidemiology for how it compares to the previous experience in Spain gathered in the 1970s and 1980s.

Open access
Hypothermia effects on liver and kidney oxidative stress parameters in an experimental model of sepsis in rats

Abstract

A Introduction

Oxidative stress (OS) seems to be an important mediator of cellular injury, from which sepsis can proceed. Studies have demonstrated the protective effect of controlled hypothermia in sepsis. This study aimed to evaluate its effects on OS parameters in rat hepatic and renal tissue septic after caecal ligation and puncture (CLP).

Material and Methods

Three groups were appointed (10 rats/group): C (control), SN (sepsis normothermic), and SH (sepsis hypothermic). Ten hours from CLP, the liver and kidneys were harvested and total protein concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, lipid peroxidation level (malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonylated proteins (2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), and fatty acid profile were analysed.

Results

Sepsis significantly increased SOD and GPx activities in the liver, regardless of the temperature. In renal tissue, GPx activity increased significantly in normothermic conditions and SOD tended to decrease in hypothermic conditions. MDA and DNPH concentrations increase in both tissues after CLP. Hypothermia significantly lowered MDA in the liver but only changed it insignificantly in the kidneys. The DNPH in the liver and kidneys was significantly lower in hypothermic conditions. The unsaturated-to-saturated fatty acids ratio was significantly lower in sepsis, and the fall in temperature raised this ratio.

Conclusion

Experimentally induced sepsis in rats enhances OS in the liver and kidneys. The effect of hypothermia on OS indices is dependent on the type of tissue.

Open access
Molecular characterisation of the Mycobacterium bovis causing bovine tuberculosis outbreaks in Poland

Abstract

Introduction

Since 2009, Poland has been recognised as a country officially free of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), although in each year of the last five there were from 8 to 18 outbreaks of the disease. In 2008–2016, the largest number of cattle infected with bovine mycobacteria were eliminated in the Masovian Province (the central region of Poland) and the largest number of outbreaks of this zoonosis were recorded in this area. The close proximity of farms where bTB was found led to the suspicion that tuberculosis could have been transmitted between the affected herds. The aim of the study was the molecular characterisation of the pertinent M. bovis/caprae strains and determination of the epidemiological relationship of various bTB outbreaks.

Material and Methods

The material for microbiological tests came from 119 cattle (Bos taurus) from nine herds located in five provinces, neighbouring the Masovian Province.

Results

Laboratory tests of tissue material gave results confirming tuberculosis in 54 (45%) animals. All strains belonged to the Mycobacterium bovis species. A two-step analysis of genetic affinity allowed 50 strains to be identified as phylogenetically closely related and separated between three genetic clusters consisting of 2 to 27 strains.

Conclusion

Based on the results of genotyping, bTB outbreaks were found in three herds, and three transmission chains were identified among these herds.

Open access