Mantle vegetation includes plant communities dominated mostly by shrubs and occurs in habitats where the typical tree layers meet difficulties to evolve. This study was conducted in three areas of Bulgaria – Western Balkan Range, Western Sredna Gora Mt. and the Fore-Balkan. Numerical classification and ordination were performed by PC-ORD and JUICE software packages. Diagnostic species were determined by calculating the Phi-coefficient. Two associations and one plant community of the Berberidion alliance were recognized – Corno-Ligustretum Horvat ex Trinajstić ---amp--- Z. Pavletić 1991, Pruno spinosae-Ligustretum vulgaris Tüxen 1952 and Elytrigia repens-Crataegus monogyna community. The latter considered as a successional stage of shrub encroachment into the grasslands. Its species composition is very close to that of the ass. Corno-Ligustretum. The species composition of ass. Pruno-Ligustretum represents a mixture of species characteristic for dry and mesic grasslands, fringe and forest vegetation. The Crataego-Prunetea class is still poorly studied in Bulgaria and much more data from all regions in the country have to be collected.
Echinophora spinosa L., a perennial member of the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family is known to be native to southern Europe and Algeria. More recently this taxon was collected from Tabarka (Jendouba-Kroumiria, North-Western of Tunisia) and is reported as a new species for the terrestrial flora of Tunisia. It is described and illustrated and notes on its ecology and phytosociological remarks are provided.
Based on hierarchical classification of more than 300 phytosociological relevés of basophilic black and (or) Scots pine communities in the Southern, Eastern and Southeastern Alps we described a new association Rhodothamno chamaecisti-Pinetum sylvestris, into which we classify stands that have until now been discussed in the framework of subassociations Fraxino orni-Pinetum nigrae pinetosum sylvestris, laricetosum deciduae and (partly) caricetosum humilis, and are floristically slightly similar also to certain forms of the association Erico-Pinetum sylvestris. The stands of the new association are for now classified into Natura 2000 habitat type Southeastern-European Pinus sylvestris forests (91R0), within it we propose a special habitat subtype Southeastern-Alpine Scots pine forests, and into a new forest site type Southeastern-Alpine Scots pine forest. At the contact of the Julian and Dinaric Alps we described a new subassociation Genisto januensis-Pinetum sylvestris campanuletosum cespitosae, which comprises also a Natura 2000 species Primula carniolica.
The study presents a floristic-sociological classification of the forest vegetation of Kyiv urban area. We identified 18 syntaxa within 7 classes, 7 orders, 8 alliances, and 3 new associations were allocated (Aristolochio clematitis-Populetum nigrae, Galio aparines-Aceretum negundi, Dryopterido carthusianae-Pinetum sylvestris). We analyzed vegetation data using quantitative approaches of ordination and phytoindication. Considering many relevés of transitional nature in the collected data on urban forests, the clustering algorithm of DRSA (Distance-Ranked Sorting Algorithm) was applied to classify vegetation matrix. Large-scale comparative floristic analysis of syntaxa from different regions and countries have been conducted and summarized in differentiating tables.
The Central Anatolian vegetation has diverse site conditions and small-scale plant diversity. For this reason, identification of plant communities is important for understanding their ecology and nature conservation. This study aims to contribute the syntaxonomical classification of the Central Anatolian vegetation. The study area is situated among Güzelyurt, Narköy, and Bozköy (Niğde) in the east of Aksaray province of Central Anatolia in Turkey. The vegetation data were collected using the phytosociological method of Braun-Blanquet and classified using TWINSPAN. The ecological characteristics of the units were investigated with Detrended Correspondence Analysis. Three new plant associations were described in the study. The steppe association was included in Onobrychido armenae-Thymetalia leucostomi and Astragalo microcephali-Brometea tomentelli. The forest-steppe association was classified under Quercion anatolicae in Quercetea pubescentis. The riparian association is the first poplar-dominated one described in Turkey and, classified under Alno glutinosae-Populetea albae and its alliance Populion albae.
Markéta Šantrůčková, Jiří Dostálek and Tomáš Frantík
Extensive tall-trunk orchards, an important element of the central European landscape since the Middle Ages, conserve potential for the future regarding their biodiversity, land use policy and agricultural value. For these reasons, extensive tall-trunk orchards are interesting with regard to nature conservation. Once the management of these low-productivity vegetation sites ceases, the habitat is threatened by successive overgrowth by shrub vegetation. Taking abandoned tall-trunk cherry orchards with dry/mesophilous grassland undergrowth in the locality of Kaňk as an example, the degree of colonization of orchards by woody species and differences in the structure of vegetation cover in different periods after abandonment were monitored. The results showed that the cover of cherry trees in orchards abandoned before 1990 was approximately 30% lower than in orchards abandoned after 2000. The cover of the herb layer in orchards abandoned before 1990 was approximately 60% lower than in orchards abandoned after 2000. The species diversity of orchards abandoned before 1990 was statistically significantly lower than that of orchards abandoned after 2000. The total cover of all species in habitat in areas of medieval ore extraction was approximately 50% lower than that in land originally used for farming.
Bovine tuberculosis, caused by M. bovis, is endemic in Mexico and has had a big impact on public health. Jalisco is considered to be an important dairy region in the country, accounting for approximately 19% of the total milk production. Within Jalisco, the region of Altos Sur holds the largest proportion of the cattle inventory of the state.
Material and Methods
To determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in Altos Sur, Jalisco, as well as M. bovis genetic diversity, sampling of tissue (lymph nodes, lungs, and liver) from Holstein cattle was performed in four abattoirs belonging to three municipalities of this region (Tepatitlán de Morelos, San Miguel el Alto, and Arandas). Spoligotyping and whole-genome sequencing were carried out to assess the genetic relationships of M. bovis strains circulating in this area, as well as a comparison to isolates from other places in Mexico.
Prevalence was 15.06%, and distribution similar among the three municipalities. The most frequent spoligotypes were SB0673, SB121, and SB0145. Whole-genome sequencing revealed three main clades (I, II, III), but isolates did not show clustering by region.
Phylogenetic analysis suggested ongoing transmission between herds of the different regions, and no unique source of infection was determined. This hinders efforts under the national program for the control and eradication of the disease, so serious attention must be paid to rural regions such as Altos Sur in order to improve its success.
Yenny Picón, Geiner Almario, Victoria Rodríguez and Noel Verjan Garcia
Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease which is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Canids are the most important reservoir of the parasites; however, limited data are available on the species of Leishmania prevalent in these animals and their impact on human health. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs from an inter-Andean region of Colombia during July 2016–July 2017, and to describe the clinical and histopathological features of the disease.
Material and Methods
A total of 155 dogs were subjected to clinical examination and a serological test for detection of antibodies against Leishmania. Necropsy was carried out on positive animals and tissue samples were processed by routine histopathology.
Altogether 19 dogs were positive in the serological test, establishing a 12% seroprevalence of Leishmania. Clinical examination and necropsy revealed exfoliative and ulcerative dermatitis with haemorrhagic borders on the ears, head, nose, and legs. Histopathology revealed severe multifocal dermatitis with abundant Leishmania amastigotes within the cytoplasm of phagocytic cells, depletion of lymphocytes in lymphoid tissues, interstitial pneumonia, and interstitial nephritis. Tissue samples were positive for Leishmania by PCR.
The macro- and microscopic changes correlated with the presence of Leishmania as established by serological test and PCR.
Radu Andrei Baisan, Eusebiu Ionuț Condurachi and Vasile Vulpe
Five-minute heart-rate variability (HRV) measurement is a useful tool for assessing the autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance in humans, but there are no studies on healthy dogs. The aim of the study was, therefore, to provide the reference ranges in small and medium-sized breeds for short-term HRV time and frequency domain (TFD) analyses.
Material and Methods
A total of 79 healthy dogs were included in the study between 2015 and 2019. Grouping by age with the breakpoint at six years and subgrouping by reproductive status and sex was imposed. All the dogs were included after physical and cardiological examinations and blood analyses. The TFD of HRV were analysed from a five-minute-long digital ECG recording after removal of non-sinus complexes.
There were no statistically significant differences in any TFD parameters between age, reproductive status or sex groups. A mild increase in all time domain parameters and the high-frequency (HF) band was observed in older dogs, and the low frequency (LF):HF ratio decreased in these dogs. In males, the time domain parameters and HF band increased slightly.
The normal ranges for HRV derived from short-term ECG recording in the usual clinical environment now have proposed reference ranges. Our findings suggest that accommodation time, age, sex, or reproductive status do not influence the results derived from these recordings, indicating that this method is reliable for assessing the ANS function in small and medium-sized dog breeds.
Dagmara Winiarczyk, Łukasz Adaszek, Jacek Madany, Mateusz Winiarczyk and Stanisław Winiarczyk
Dobermann dogs are reportedly predisposed to familial glomerulonephropathy. Proteinuria is a hallmark of canine familial glomerular diseases. The identification of glomerular abnormalities in breeds so predisposed is of great importance in improving breeding policy. Therefore, markers that allow the detection and localisation of renal damage are needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the urinary concentrations of immunoglobulin G (uIgG), retinol-binding protein (uRBP), and Tamm–Horsfall protein (uTHP) in a family of Dobermanns with proteinuria and compare these concentrations with the corresponding values in healthy controls.
Material and Methods
Ten dogs of the Dobermann breed with proteinuria (five with a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) of 0.5–1 and five with a UPC >1) and twelve healthy dogs were enrolled. An ELISA was performed to measure uIgG, uRBP, and uTHP, and these proteins were quantified in relation to urinary creatinine (uCrea).
uIgG/uCr and uRBP/uCr were significantly higher in the family of Dobermanns than in the healthy dogs. A significant difference in the uTHP/uCr value was found only in dogs with a UPC of >1.
IgG seems to facilitate the diagnosis of primary hereditary glomerulopathy in Dobermanns. Moreover, in affected dogs, proteinuria characterisation seems to be a promising alternative option for the detection and localisation of renal lesions.