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Open access

Przemysław Dębski, Ewelina Białas and Rafał Gnat

Abstract

Self-myofascial release (SMR) is a well-known and popular therapy. Its growing popularity is based on high effectiveness and availability. However, there is a lack of agreement about which parameters should be used to optimize the effects of the therapy. The purpose of this review is to critically select and assess current literature and ascertain the values of the follow­ing parameters: (1) therapy duration, (2) volume of applied pressure, (3) speed and (4) frequency of roll, (5) type of roller, (6) the number of treatment applications during one session, (7) the duration of intervals between applications that yield the best results in terms of soft tissue.

The authors launched their research in May 2018. The search strategy included the electronic databases EBSCOhost and PubMed. The following inclusion criteria were assessed:

- English language, high quality manuscripts (evaluation in PEDro scale)

- at least one of the groups using the foam roller, tennis ball or the stick to fascial release

- basic parameters of therapy described.A total 55 articles met the inclusion criteria. Patients can usually withstand a maximum tolerable pressure for 30-120 seconds, repeated 1-3 times, separated by 30 seconds of rest. The intensity of a single rolling movement should be moderate, and the movement should last about 3 seconds. Keeping the roller on particularly sensitive areas is recommended to release tension and enhance blood perfusion.Currently, there is no consensus on an optimal FR programme. However, there is a tendency to use SMR tools with a physiol­ogy-based method to enhance therapeutic efficiency.

Open access

Lucas de Lucena de Simões, Eline Autran de Lima, Gabriela Carvalho Jurema Santos, Tafnes Oliveira, Elenilson Maximino Bernardo, Luana Olegário, Erika Rabelo Fortes Siqueira and Matheus Santos de Sousa Fernandes

Abstract

Study aim: To verify the relationship between different durations of regular practice of physical activity in aspects related to the anthropometric profile and hepatic function of patients infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Material and methods: 125 patients (aged 55.2 ± 10.4 years) participated in the study. Clinical data were obtained through medical records available at the Pernambuco Liver Institute. Physical activity levels were obtained through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form to classify the patients according to the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Results: Significant differences were found in GGT 141 (28-378 U/L) and HDL 39 (27-56 mg/dL) respectively in insuffi­ciently active and physically active groups, AST 71 (26-268 U/L), ALT 83 (36-452 U/L), GGT 78 (3-532 U/L), alkaline phos­phatase 74 (47-302 mg/dL) and total bilirubin 0.7 (0.1-2.8 mg/dL) in insufficiently active and very physically active groups. Anthropometric data showed significant differences in chest (p < 0.01), abdomen (p < 0.02) and waist measurement (p < 0.01) between insufficiently active and very physically active groups.

Conclusion: Physical activity, when practiced regularly for more than 300 minutes per week, can improve the clinical and an­thropometric profile in patients infected with HCV.

Open access

Sema Can and Ayda Karaca

Abstract

Study aim: The purpose of this study was to examine smartphone-using university students’ musculoskeletal system pain complaints, duration of smartphone and computer usage, participation in moderate-vigorous physical activities (MVPA), and prolonged sitting time.

Material and methods: This study was conducted on Hitit University students (n = 387; 206 female, 181 male) in the province of Çorum. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), the Physical Activity Assessment Ques­tionnaire (PAAQ) (sports/exercise activities section), and a personal information form prepared by the researchers were used as data collection tools. Descriptive statistics and the t-test were used to determine differences between groups. The Pearson chi-square test was used to examine the relationship between categorical variables.

Results: It was observed that half of the participants with musculoskeletal system pain complaints (54.5%) feel the pain in all four areas (neck, shoulder, upper and lower back). There was no statistically significant relationship between physical activity intensity and pain complaint (p > 0.05). The students with musculoskeletal pain complaints spend more time on the smartphone and computer than students who do not have pain complaints (p < 0.05). During electronic device usage, the students who are in the low-intensity physical activity category spend more time sitting down than students in the moderate/vigorous intensity physical activity category (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: In consequence, information can be provided about the importance of reducing sitting time during smartphone use and increasing the duration of moderate/vigorous-intensity physical activity (PA) so awareness can be raised on the issue among university students.

Open access

Ebby Waqqash Mohamad Chan, Mohamad Shariff A. Hamid, Faridzal Harrymen Mohd Din, Rozali Ahmad, Ali Md Nadzalan and Eliza Hafiz

Abstract

Study aim: The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and explore possible factors associ­ated with LBP among Malaysian army personnel deployed in Klang Valley in the year 2018. Material and methods: A self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic data, occupational background, occupational exposure and LBP evaluation was used in this study. A total of 330 respondents participated in this study and 321 (97%) of them completed and returned the questionnaires. Results: One hundred and fifty-seven respondents complained of LBP, giving a prevalence of 48.9%. LBP was found to be associated with smoking status, history of LBP, history of accident, military rank, category of regiment, lifting weights, push­ing weights, pulling weights and job-related physical activity. Logistic regression analysis identified four associated risk fac­tors of LBP: history of accident (OR = 4.42, 95% 2.29-8.55), history of LBP (OR=1.92, 95% 1.11-3.31), combat regiment (OR = 1.97, 95% 1.14-3.42) and high job-related physical activity (OR = 2.35, 95% 1.31-4.20). Conclusion: Almost half of Malaysian army personnel stationed in Klang Valley reported LBP symptoms. Smoking status, history of LBP, history of accident, junior non-commissioned officers (NCOs), combat regiments, manual handling of objects and moderate/high job-related physical activity are associated with LBP, but there is no evidence of a temporal relationship in the current study. Further exploration with a longitudinal study is needed to identify a cause and effect relationship between occupational exposure and LBP among Malaysian army personnel.

Open access

Małgorzata Bronikowska and Agata Korcz

Summary

Study aim: The main purpose of this study was to examine the level of moral competences of 437 pre-service physical educa­tion (PE) university students. It was also designed to evaluate the level of moral competency and the correlations with factors (i.e. Parents, Religion, School education, PE teacher, Sport coach, Studies, Media and Peers) potentially influencing moral development in pre-service PE teachers. Material and methods: The study included data collected in 2017 from 216 male and 221 female students aged 21.5 ± 1.85 from the faculty of Physical Education in Poznań, Poland. The students were categorised into three levels of moral competences, after which possible correlations between the factors influencing moral development were examined. The Moral Competence Test (MCT) survey was used to measure the ability to rate arguments by their moral quality. Participants were requested to confront two moral dilemmas and agree or disagree with the statements which were presented to them. Results: The results suggest that a vast majority of students (78.7%) present a very low level of moral competences, and with regard to the factors influencing moral development, the lowest value was attributed to PE teachers. Moderate positive correla­tions were found between School education and PE teacher, and between Sport coach and PE teacher. Conclusions: The findings indicate the need for more attention to be paid to moral education in teacher training in PE.

Open access

Somruthai Poomsalood, Karthik Muthumayandi and Karen Hambly

Abstract

Study aim: There are currently limited methods available to access dynamic knee range of motion (ROM) during free-living activities. This type of method would be valuable for monitoring and progressing knee rehabilitation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functioning of stretch sensors for the measurement of knee ROM and to assess the level of the measurement error. Material and methods: Nine healthy participants were included in the study. Three stretch sensors (StretchSense™, Auckland, NZ) were attached on the participants’ right knees by Kinesiotape®. A Cybex dynamometer was used to standardise movement speed of the knee joint. Data was recorded through the StretchSense™ BLE application. Knee angles were obtained from the video clips recorded during the testing and were analysed by MaxTraq® 2D motion analysis software. The knee angles were then synchronised with the sensor capacitance through R programme. Results: Seven out of the nine participants presented with high coefficient of determination (R2) (>0.98) and low root mean square error (RMSE) (<5°) between the sensor capacitance and knee angle. Two participants did not confirm good relationship between capacitance and knee angle as they presented high RMSE (>5°). The equations generated from these 7 participants’ data were used individually to predict knee angles. Conclusions: The stretch sensors can be used to measure knee ROM in healthy adults during a passive, non-weight-bearing movement with a clinically acceptable level of error. Further research is needed to establish the validity and reliability of the methodology under different conditions before considered within a clinical setting.

Open access

Anna Nikolova and Diana Dimitrova

Abstract

Study aim: Understanding the morphological determinants of performance is important for talent identification and optimiza­tion of training programs. The aim of this study was to examine the morphological characteristics of male and female cadet judokas considering the sex-related differences and athletic achievements. Material and methods: Seventy-four (30 female and 44 male) cadet judokas from the Bulgarian National Team underwent an anthropometric assessment of height, weight, lengths, circumferences, and 8 skinfolds. Body fat percentage (%BF) was calcu­lated using Slaughter et al. skinfold equations. Absolute and relative muscle mass, and arm and thigh muscle circumferences were also evaluated. Results: Except for the lower limb circumferences and thigh muscle circumference, a significant difference in most body dimensions was observed between the sexes. Male cadets had lower body fatness, but greater muscle mass as compared to female cadets. Medal winners from both sexes had lower %BF as compared to non-medalists. Male judokas with higher athletic achievements were significantly taller and had a larger arm span than their counterparts who are non-medalists (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Identified apparent sex-specific differences in almost all anthropometric variables and body composition param­eters in adolescent judo cadets followed the pattern typical for adult athletes. Both male and female medal-winner cadets had lower %BF compared to the less successful athletes, but did not differ from them in the absolute and relative muscle mass and limb muscle circumferences. Our results suggest that maintenance of low body fat rather than higher muscle mass is essential for the competitive success of judo players.

Open access

Paulina Górska, Jana Krzysztoszek, Agata Korcz and Michał Bronikowski

Abstract

The interest in the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance is still considerable. However, more ad­vanced research is required to better understand this relationship. Therefore, the purpose of the current review is to describe the state of knowledge of the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance. Furthermore, this relationship is explored with reference to five components of physical fitness, asking which ones have the most beneficial effect on maintain­ing and improving learning outcomes. In this review, we emphasize studies that advance the understanding of this issue, which is still incomplete. These studies offer hope of deeper understanding of the type of selected physical fitness components and their impact on academic performance. Further research into the association between components of physical fitness such as flexibility, strength and endurance of muscles and academic performance in children, while controlling for important covari­ates, is needed.

Open access

Andrew Scott Perrotta and Darren E. R. Warburton

Abstract

Study aim: Recent evidence has revealed a reduction in the strength of correlation between ratings of perceived exertion and a heart rate (HR) derived training load in elite field hockey players during competition. These competitive periods involve sustained levels of cardiovascular performance coupled with considerable time performing above the anaerobic threshold. As such, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the magnitude of correlation between ratings of perceived exertion and time spent above threshold and two HR derived training loads.

Material and methods: Seventeen (n = 17) international caliber female field hockey players competing as a national team were monitored over four matches during a seven-day competition period within the 2016 Olympic Cycle. Cardiovascular indices of exercise intensity were derived from HR dynamics and were quantified through estimating time spent above anaerobic threshold (LT2), the Edwards training load model (TLED) and the Polar Training Load (TLPOL). Sessional ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) were recorded after each match.

Results: 64 samples were recorded for analysis. HR derived (TLED& TL POL) and sRPE training loads remained comparable between matches. A large correlation (p = 0.01) was observed between sRPE and each heart rate derived training load (TLED& TLPOL). An unremarkable relationship (p = 0.06) was revealed between time spent above LT2 and sRPE.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate HR derived training loads (TLPOL& TLED) exhibit a stronger correlation with sRPE than time spent above LT2 in elite field hockey players during competition.

Open access

Andrzej Lewandowski, Marcin Kowalewski, Tomasz Kowalik and Zuzanna Piekorz

Abstract

Study aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the power output and major morphological characteristics during the competition phase. We hypothesised that substantial overloads occurring during this stage cause a decrease in body mass, fat and power output levels in the cyclists.

Material and methods: Nine members from an affiliated Professional Cycling Group ActiveJet Team were observed during the period between January and September. Their mean age was calculated as 25.1 ± 1.6 years. Each month the main somatic fea­tures were determined and the BMI and Rohrer index were measured. The level of adipose tissue was checked using the Tanita BC-418 Ma and the Schoeberer Rad Messtechnik SRM training system was employed to record the maximum level of power output. The following tests were used to collect data: Shapiro-Wilk and ANOVA (assessment of the distribution of variables), Duncan (assessment of the changes of variables), and Pearson correlation coefficient (assessment of power dependence and morphological features). A significance coefficient of α = 0.05 was assumed.

Results: The research of the studied group revealed a steady decrease in the body mass and fat percentage but no significant differences in power output levels. Its peak was reached in the middle of the starting phase (1195.3 ± 222.3 W) and the lowest level was noted during the last month of our observation (1114.1 ± 152.1 W; D = 81.2 W, p = 0.088). Correlations were found between body mass, fat composition and power output levels: moderate for mass (r = 0.383-0.778) and fat (r = 0.352-0.629) content to power output and small negative for height to power output. In most cases, however, they were either weak or low (r = -0.017-0.339).

Conclusions: Significant changes in the morphological characteristics (body weight 70.2 ± 6.4-69.2 ± 5.9 kg, p < 0.001; BMI 21.4 ± 1.9-21.1 ± 1.7, p < 0.001; Rohrer index 1.18 ± 0.11-1.16 ± 0.10, p < 0.001; fat 9.2 ± 3.2-8.2 ± 2.3, p < 0.001) and no differences in power output combined (1151.0 ± 272.4-1114.1 ± 152.1 W, p = 0.434) with medium correlations of these determinants (body height - 2.53-0.354; body weight 0.383-0.778; fat 0.352-0.629) indicate the significance of motor charac­teristics in road racing cyclists. Thus levels in its competency and performance outcomes are determined to a greater extent by factors other than the somatic characteristics.