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The Beginning of Rugby Union in Serbia


The first direct contact with rugby was made by young men from Serbia during the First World War, after retreating through Albania, watching matches of French and English soldiers. During 1916, some 3,500 Serbian boys were sent to France and the United Kingdom to study. During their education at lyceums, colleges and universities, they were given the opportunity to play various sports, including rugby union. In keeping with their interest and quality, the Serbian boys quickly became involved in the school teams. Most Serbian boys actively participated in playing rugby in three Scottish cities - Edinburgh, Glasgow and Dundee. Their interest in the sport was so much that in Edinburgh and Glasgow they formed special teams made up only of Serbs who played matches with other school teams. The highlight of dealing with Serb rugby in Scotland was the performance by the boys of the George Heriot School at the Rugby 7 tournament on March 9, 1918 in Edinburgh and a victory over the British Colonies selection. This performance can be considered the first appearance of a sports team under the name of Serbia on the international stage.

After the end of World War I and the return to the homeland, some of the young men who became acquainted with rugby in France and the United Kingdom actively participated in academic and sports life in their homeland and the result was the establishment of two rugby clubs, in Sabac and Belgrade.

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Bracketed Morality in Sport


Although sport can promote moral values and prosocial behavior in youth, numerous research shows that sports engagement alone does not guarantee that outcome. Instead of striving for fair-play and sport excellence which not exclude justness, solidarity and moral integrity, contemporary sport frequently follows the Lombardian ethic, where „winning isn’t everything, it’s the only thing”. Moral pause or bracketed morality, as described in sport, refers to the phenomenon of tolerance and acceptance of aggressive behavior or cheating, that will be morally condemned outside sports arenas. Accordingly, lower levels of moral reasoning and behavior have been identified in athletes and non-athletes in the sports-related situation in comparison to other life situations; in athletes when compared to non-athletes, in more experienced athletes, high-level athletes, team-sport athletes, and male athletes. Moral reasoning and behavior of athletes are influenced by contextual and personal factors, with coaches having a particularly important role to play. The positive influence of sport on the moral development of athletes might be related to pre-service and in-service education of coaches how to develop adequate moral atmosphere, and how to plan for moral decision-making as an integral part of everyday practice.

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Certain Indicators of Violence in Children and Youth Sports


The various manifesting forms of violence fall into the group of acute problems of contemporary Serbian society. There are multiple reasons for this, which are the consequence of a multi-decade post-socialist transformation, complicated by the pauperization of society, as well as by intense globalization processes. Peer violence is one of the negative features of everyday life and lifestyle of children and youth. Having this in mind, the authors have identified some manifesting forms of peer violence in children and youth sports on the territory of the city of Novi Sad. It concerns the results of the analysis of secondary material (more specifically - legal acts and strategies) which deal with the issue of peer violence in sports. Furthermore, the authors have identified the manifesting forms and intensity of peer violence in children and youth sports through conducting focus-group interviews with coaches and parents of children aged 6 to 16. In addition to peer violence, thanks to focus-group discussions, topics such as coach violence over children, as well as parental violence over (their own and others’) children, were mentioned. By researching the population of children, coaches and parents, we have obtained an initial insight into the stated social problem with two compatible views. This is significant because no research group, by the nature of its social roles in sports, has a complete overview of the social problem investigated by the authors. The results of the research represent a contribution to a small number of papers that indicate negative psycho-social consequences in the sports peer group, but also in children and youth sports in general.

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Christian Ethics in Theory and Practice of Physical Culture


A definition of physical culture highlights knowledge OF and FOR physical exercise, which enables transformation of personality from what it is into what it can be. This true in itself – that physical culture employs knowledge to achieve it, hides an array of its possibilities. This knowledge can certainly be of various levels and courses and based on different systems of values. And when knowledge is based on different systems of values, then the transformation of personality – from the real into the possible level can develop in one or the other direction that is, in a positive or a negative direction.

At a time when money is a measure of everything, one can readily choose the wrong side in which, according to neoliberalism – everything is allowed. There is no place for orthodox Christian ethics in such environment. This is why we wish to remind you that a lack of orthodox Christian ethics in the science and the profession emerging from the science and supported by global ideas which like a tsunami tear down foundations of civilizational values can lead to worrysome collapse of these basic values. Man would lose most from this collapse.

Indeed, our profession is focused on man and his bodily movements – exercise. Therefore, theory and practice of physical culture must be supported by orthodox Christian ethics. In theory, it can be found in theo-anthropocentrism whereas it is an open book in the practice of physical education, sports and recreation; the situation is different.

It is because of this diversity that we will look at different approaches both in theory and practice of physical culture.

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Correlation Between Body Composition and Functional Abilities of Judokasselected for the National Team


The aim of this study is to establish if there is a correlation between body composition and the functional abilities of judokas selected for the national team.The sample consisted of the extended male judo national team of Serbia – 25 judokas in under-18 and under-21 age categories. The subjects were aged 15 to 21. The weight categories ranged from 50 to 100 kg.The body composition of the subjects was assessed by using the InBody 720 body composition analyzer. To determine the functional abilities, a special judo fitness test and the shuttle run test were used. Canonical correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between the body composition test and the group of functional ability tests. The canonical correlation analysis revealed that there is a statistically significant correlation between body composition and functional abilities, but no statistically significant correlation between body composition and anaerobic capacity was found.The results obtained in the study can be used as guidelines for more efficient programming of the training process, with special emphasis on individual work. They can also be used for comparison with other similar studies for the given age categories and can serve as a good basis for broader selection within judo.

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Determination of the Empathy Levels of Prospective Classroom Teachers: An Example of the Life Skills Teaching Course


Introduction: The concept of empathy has been described in many ways by researchers. According to some, it is the basic cognitive function or ability of being aware of others’ thoughts and feelings. Empathy refers to being able to respond to emotions, sharing the feelings of individuals, and reflecting them as if in a mirror. It also helps to establish good relationships with people, to understand them, and share their feelings. The use of empathy in the classroom, especially in life skills courses help students to make connections between school and everyday life.

Methods: This study aimed to investigate how an empathy-based education programme implemented in the life skills teaching course affected the empathy skills of prospective classroom teachers in Turkey. For this purpose, using a mixed-methods research design, the participant prospective classroom teachers received empathy-based education programme 12 class hours. The data collection tools used in the study were the Empathy Quotient Scale, document analysis and open-ended questionnaire. The study was conducted with 64 prospective classroom teachers attending at Istanbul University, Turkey. The dependent t-test was employed to analyze the quantitative data and content analysis for qualitative data.

Results: As a result, it was seen that the qualitative data supported the quantitative data. According to the quantitative data, after receiving empathy-based education programme, the students developed the skills of empathy. According to the qualitative data, it was determined that prospective teachers understood the importance of empathy and put themselves in the place of others. In addition, the prospective teachers considered that empathy would have several positive contributions to their future primary school students. It is thought that the results obtained from this study will guide teaching practices involving empathy-based activities.

Discussion: According to the findings obtained from the quantitative data, the empathy-based education programme provided for the prospective teachers caused a significant increase in their empathy levels. Similarly, in a study who applied a critical thinking programme and empathic tendency scale to prospective teachers, reported a positive correlation between critical thinking and empathic tendency at a low-level significance. According to the findings obtained from the qualitative data, the topics chosen for the preparation of empathy-based activities were mostly from the life skills subjects of the first grade of primary school, followed by second and third grades. This may be because the prospective teachers considered it appropriate to perform empathy-based activities with children from the earliest age. Furthermore, a higher number of participants chose to prepare written empathy-based activities, followed by drawing and photography, which might be attributed to their belief that they could better express themselves through writing, rather than drawing or taking/showing pictures.

Limitations: The study group covered in the third year of the classroom teaching programme in the selected university only. Although the empathy-based education programme prepared by the researcher was implemented with the prospective teachers as part of the life skills teaching course in 10 class hours.

Conclusions: In conclusion, empathy is considered to be very important especially in the education of children of young age. As revealed by the review of literature, empathy skills also affect many positive elements. For this reason and considering that the available research in the literature is based either on quantitative or on qualitative data, more mixed-design studies are needed to investigate the effects of similar empathy-based education programmes integrated into life skills and social studies courses. In addition, it is as important to conduct empathy-based activities in other courses of the primary and middle school as in life skills and social studies courses. It is also suggested that empathy-based education should also be provided for teacher candidates enrolled in science teaching programmes, as well as those in social studies.

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Ethnopedagogy: The Term and Content


Introduction: This study reviews the most commonly used Hungarian terminology of pedagogical folklorism terms, their interpretations and the conceptual debates around them, as well as the possible imprecisions related to them. With the help of Hungarian and international examples, it places the technical terms of the ethnography-folk tradition-pedagogy triangle into a system and finally, it gives recommendations on the scientific terminology to be used to describe the phenomenon.

Purpose: The focus of this contribution is to create a system in the expressions that refer to the relationship between folk tradition and pedagogy and to carry out the systematisation of pedagogical activities related to folk tradition/ethnography and to rethink them in a modern and terminology-critical manner.

Methods: In the present study, we applied source analysis, content analysis, logical operations (analysis, synthesis, comparison).

Conclusions: Researchers of the issues at the intersection of pedagogy, ethnography, ethnology and anthropology have more or less consistently been applying the term ethnopedagogy for this interdisciplinary research area. It would be expedient to carry out the systematization of pedagogical activities related to folk tradition/ethnography and to rethink them in a modern and terminology-critical manner with the introduction of the term “ethnopedagogy.” This term may be able to connect the partially overlapping, sometimes parallel (at others, contradicting) terms related to the pedagogy of folk tradition without the risk of homogenisation.

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Historical Preconditions of the Origin of Self-Olympic Direction of Physical Culture in Ukraine


This article is devoted to the study of the historical prerequisites for the emergence of such a specific direction of mass physical culture as the self-Olympic movement in Ukraine, in particular, in Kiev, Lvov and Kharkov regions.

Based on the results of the analysis of scientific literature, as well as the application of the historical review method, we came to the conclusion that in certain regions of Ukraine in the course of the historical process natural preconditions matured, contributing to the emergence and development of such a specific type of mass physical culture, such as the self-Olympic movement.

As a result of studying statistical data accumulated over many years, it was found that in some regions of Ukraine there is a tendency to a gradual increase in the number of children suffering from certain chronic diseases or having certain deviations in their state of health.

The use of standard physical training programs for such children is not advisable, since the development of these programs was carried out taking into account the capabilities of healthy children and their use for children with pathological changes in the body can contribute to the progression of their diseases, and in some cases lead to serious complications up to lethal outcome.

Thus, it became obvious the need for scientific substantiation, development and use of special physical training programs for children with deviations in health status, aimed at achieving harmonious physical development of sick children, despite the presence of pathological changes in their body.

One of the ways to solve this urgent problem was the birth of the so-called self-Olympic movement. The essence of this movement was that in conditions of special centers for self-Olympic education, organized on the basis of medical universities and universities of physical education and sport, medical specialists, as well as physical training instructors systematically conducted with sick children, during who used special complexes of physical exercises.

These exercises were designed in such a way as not to aggravate the condition of the sick child and not to increase the risk of complications of the disease, but to help him achieve a state of harmonious physical development, despite the presence of pathological abnormalities in the body.

During these activities, each child seeks to achieve the best indicators of their physical development. He seems to be competing not with other athletes, but with his own organism, trying to set his personal records in the fight against the disease. Therefore, this type of activity was called the self-Olympic movement.

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Ideological and Hegemonic Practices in Global and Local EFL Textbooks Written for Turks and Persians


Introduction: Studies on the relationship between ideology, hegemony and textbooks in applied linguistics have been incremental in recent decades because emergence of critical theory, critical pedagogy, and critical thinking skills from the 1920s on has led scholars to develop a critical perspective towards EFL (English as a Foreign Language) textbooks taking the elements of ideology and hegemony into consideration. These two terms encompass an innumerable number of elements or compounds ranging from nationalism to religion. The importance of meta-narratives originating from the tenets of modernism or modernization has been downgraded from 1960s on because it has been postulated that the world has entered a new age called postmodernism and post-structuralism that have emphasized the role of individuals and criticized the efforts to reinforce post-colonialism, the effects of which can be seen in EFL textbooks. Therefore, it remains crucial to analyze EFL textbooks taking the main elements of ideology and hegemony into account. The aim of this study is to investigate the ideological and hegemonic practices included in globally and locally written EFL textbooks.

Methods: Using a mixed method research design, ideological and hegemonic representations included in EFL textbooks were examined qualitatively through descriptive content analysis technique employed to make valid assumptions by interpreting and coding content of textual materials. For the qualitative data, based on a descriptive research design, textbook analyses, documentary analysis, were conducted. As for the inductive content analysis, both globally and locally EFL textbooks were examined. The themes were extracted with the help of the experts since this study entailed inductive content analysis. Each theme was analyzed and perused by the experts. After a rigorous analysis, each theme was compared, and in the last stage common themes were formed.

Results: The findings of the present study show that ideology and hegemony of inner and expanding circle cultures are dominant in EFL textbooks. While the expanding circle culture is dominant in the locally written EFL textbooks, the inner circle culture is extensively included in the globally written ones. However, outer circle countries are excluded and marginalized. Besides, while specific ideologies such as economy and history were highly included in both globally and locally written textbooks, some of them such as law and gender were weakly detected.

Discussion: This present study showed that locally written textbooks dwell more on expanding circles, whereas globally written textbooks except for national geographic textbooks, to a large extent, mention only inner circle. Correspondingly, Abdullah (2009) scrutinized the textbooks in Malaysia and concluded that their textbooks covered local cultures from expanding circles. A similar finding was detected in various textbooks in Chile also including the local culture instead of the target one (McKay, 2003). In our study, the most dominant ideological component was culture (75.87% in global textbooks and 77.80% in local textbooks) whose components contain social norms, traditions, beliefs, social values (Williamson, 2000). Surprisingly, in both locally and globally written textbooks, the ideology of culture was prevalent (75.87% in global textbooks and 77.80% in local textbooks). This component was both implicitly and explicitly presented in the textbooks analyzed in this study.

Limitations: Taking the extent of the study into consideration, specific limitations already subsist in hand. Initially, choosing textbooks for the analysis of the existing ideological and hegemonic practices in the materials is a difficult task; hence, a particular and convenience selection criterion was selected. Additionally, as the scope of the study is constructed on English as a foreign or second language - a lingua franca, the selection was built on textbooks written globally and locally.

Conclusion: In locally written textbooks, multiculturalism and law-related issues were barely mentioned, while few religion, politics and gender-related issues were directly mentioned. Some topics, although they were very pivotal across the globe, were never mentioned. The topics of poverty, slavery, and racism were by no means focused on in the textbooks. Thus, it can be said that some topics are underrepresented or never represented owing to the fact that these topics might be too risky. As for the ideology of language, this element was emphasized in both global and local textbooks. The element of education was moderately stressed. Another important element is sport that is prevalent in both global and local EFL textbooks.

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Parents’ Expectation of Mathematics Education and Their Engagement in Education and Homework Habits of Children


Introduction: In this study, it was aimed to examine the expectations of elementary and secondary school parents from the mathematics education and their engagements in the education and the mathematics homework habits of their children.

Methods: The research data was collected by “A Scale to Determine Parents’ Expectation from Mathematics Education”, “Mathematics Homework Behavior Scale” and the “Personal Information Form” prepared by the researcher. The data of this study executed and conducted by survey model was analyzed by SPSS 16.

Results: In the study, it is revealed that the expectations of parents from Mathematics education and the mathematics homework habit of their children are high. There is no difference based on the levels of the children and parentage status of the parents, regardless of being mother or father, the mathematics homework habit of the children who favor mathematics lesson and at the same time thrive on is more favorable and positive than the ones who do not favor mathematics lesson and at the same time fail to thrive on, the homework habit of the children whom are supported sufficiently in the mathematics lesson is more favorable and positive. Last but not least, there is no correlation between the expectations of the parents from Mathematics education and the homework habits of their children.

Discussion: High expectations of parents from mathematics classes may suggest that they trust their children and their teachers. It may also suggest that they are involved in the education process and that they find it sufficient. Based on the findings of this study, according to which the level of homework habits of the parents’ children is high, it can be assumed that the students do their homework willingly and they have no problems with doing their daily homework. Parents’ help their children’s with homework occasionally to make them feel that they are not alone in this process. Lower expectations from their children and lower engagement of parents at upper levels may be caused by the fact that they cannot support their children sufficiently due to the complexity of subjects. In elementary schools, since their children are smaller in terms of age, parents may think that their children need more help and they can be more active in education because the subjects in elementary school are not as complicated as in higher classes. The math homework habits do not differ according to the education level of students’ but, based on the scores, we can say that they are more favourable in the elementary school since the children are younger and besides, in Turkey, children are assigned homework more regularly and the homework habits start to emerge at the elementary school level. Just depending on the scores, it is interesting to note that the expectations of fathers from mathematics education and their engagement in the process are higher than those of mothers. This may suggest that the expectations of fathers from their children may be due to the higher goals they set for them and perhaps since they are more perfectionist, they are more involved in the children’s education than mothers. To like a lesson, can be considered a precondition for doing the assigned homework more willingly. Children do their homework more willingly in the courses at which they consider themselves successful. That is why the results of this study are not surprising. The homework habits of the children sufficiently supported in mathematics are expected to be more favourable. The expectations of parents from mathematics lesson were not related to their children’s homework habits. The absence of homework habits, in the parents’ expectation from mathematics lesson, may be due to not getting a clear answer from the parents with respect to the question whether homework should be assigned in education or not.

Limitations: These research and data collection tools used are limited only by the thoughts of parents of primary and middle school students in Turkey.

Conclusions: The child, being aware that he is not alone in the process, will be more confident if he knows that there is a family support behind him in overcoming mathematics.

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