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Boots on the streets: a “policization” of the armed forces as the new normal?

Abstract

The article analyses how the boundaries of postmodern military organizations are changing and how these evolutions affect their relations with the civilian society. The case of the Belgian Defence and the deployment of its military personnel in the streets are used as a case study to illustrate this transformation. Since January 2015, in response to the imminent terrorist threat in Belgium, military units have been deployed in support of the police to monitor sensitive areas, guard buildings and patrol the streets. The article analyses, first, how the population reacted to these new “proximity” roles and, second, the impact of these homeland deployments on the expeditionary readiness of the Belgian Defence and its capacity to carry out its primary missions.

The empirical analyses are, based on several quantitative and qualitative surveys, carried out among the Belgian population and the personnel of the Belgian Defence. In particular, the impact of the evolution of the public’s support over time on the blurring of the traditional roles of the military and the use of the military for internal security tasks is analysed.

Open access
Integrated defence workforces: Challenges and enablers of military–civilian personnel collaboration

Abstract

Defence organisations are unique in that they comprise integrated military and civilian personnel working in partnership with each other (e.g., in headquarters, on bases, on missions, in academic settings). Many defence civilians are supervised by military supervisors and managers, while others are themselves responsible for managing military personnel. At the same time, despite often high levels of partnership and integration, military and civilian personnel are governed by very different personnel management systems, and have distinct cultures. These factors can affect the nature and quality of the collaboration and influence personnel outcomes and organisational effectiveness. Indeed, defence organisations are increasingly recognizing the importance of optimizing integration between their military and civilian workforces, with many adopting organisational terms implying that the military and civilian workforces form a cohesive whole: the Defence Team (Canada), the Whole Force Concept (United Kingdom), One Defence Team (Sweden), and Total Defence Workforce (New Zealand).

This paper presents results from the Military–Civilian Personnel Survey (MCPS), which was administered in 11 nations as part of a NATO Research Task Group on the topic of military-civilian personnel collaboration and integration (NATO STO HFM RTG-226). This survey was the first systematic examination of large samples of military and civilian respondents, and the first to examine military–civilian relations from the perspective of both military and civilian personnel. The results presented here are based on three open-ended questions included in the survey, which asked respondents to identify 1) the most important factors for establishing and maintaining positive military-civilian personnel work culture and relations, 2) the challenges of working in a military-civilian environment, and 3) the main advantages of working in a military-civilian environment. Results of 5 nations, including Canada, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United Kingdom (n =1,513 military respondents and n = 2,099 defence civilians) are presented. Results indicate that mixed military-civilian work environments present both unique challenges and advantages, and identified the factors considered to be important for enhancing integration and collaboration between military and civilian personnel. Given that many cross-national patterns emerged, these findings provide useful insights for enhancing military and civilian personnel integration and collaboration across nations.

*Adapted from the material first reported in Goldenberg, I. & Febbraro, A.R. (2018; in publication). Civilian and Military Personnel Integration and Collaboration in Defence Organizations. NATO Science and Technology Organization Technical Report - STO-TR-HFM-226. DOI 10.14339/STO-TR-HFM-226. ISBN: ISBN 978-92-837-2092-8.

Open access
Saying no to military service – obligation, killing and inequality as experienced problems in conscription-based military in Finland

Abstract

While studying citizen-soldiers, their dual identity as a soldier and a civilian have been highlighted. A citizen-soldier’s role is linked to citizenship and its obligation. The dual identity or critical voices of conscription or reserve forces have neither been recognized in research nor been debated publicly in Finland. The aim of this article is to analyse the reasons why some conscripts raise critical voices concerning their relationship with conscription and their role as reservists. The study is based on the interviews of 38 non-military service men and 33 men who resigned from the reserve in 2017. The data was analysed using content analysis. According to the results, the main problems with regard to conscription and armed defence, among the conscripts, relate to inequality of the conscription system, obligation to serve and lack of discretion. For individual conscripts as citizen-soldiers, the problem of killing has special weight when they reflect upon their own role in the possible act of war. Conscripts and their expertise could be used more extensively in a wider range of security-related issues than in armed defence alone.

Open access
Warrior and peacekeeper role identities: associations with self-esteem, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior

Abstract

This article focuses on military role identity by assessing the relations between demographic variables and warrior and peacekeeper role identities and by examining the potential influence of these role identities on self-esteem, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in a cross-national sample. A questionnaire was distributed to military members in four participating countries: Belgium, Estonia, Canada and the Netherlands (n = 831). The findings show that demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, marital status and unit) are related to military role identity, and that military role identity predicts self-esteem, organizational commitment and OCB. In particular, multiple regression analyses demonstrate that peacekeeper role identity predicts self-esteem, organizational commitment and OCB, whereas warrior role identity only predicts organizational commitment and OCB, and further, that peacekeeper role identity is a stronger predictor of the outcome variables measured. The theoretical and practical implications, including providing commanders with information to assess their units’ mindsets, and mechanisms to improve self-esteem, commitment, OCB, are discussed. Finally, the limitations of this study and its potential for future research are described.

Open access
Accounting Dualism – Particularities and Information Source for Internal and External Users in Organizational Development

Abstract

Knowing the fact that in the market economy the most important resource is the information and, naturally, since the accounting cannot be substituted for the manager, instead it offers the information necessary for the decision-making processes. The paper highlights, on the basis of bibliographic resources, that a dual accounting representation responds best to all strategic requirements and leads to a better visualization of the entity as a whole, as well as of each structure. Also, in the paper we analyzed, through a selective research, the degree to which the provision of accounting information to various categories of interested users contributes to the development of the entity.

Open access
Capitalization on the Public Property of the State and of the Administrative-Territorial Units by Means of Concession

Abstract

Traditional modality of using public property, the concession has played a significant role in the development of the modern state by capitalizing on those goods that by their legal nature have an inalienable character as well as by entrusting some works or public services to legal entities of private law which can execute them or make them more efficient.The economic development of the last decades of the states of the European Union, the acceleration of the commercial exchanges and the extension of the forms of circulation of the goods and services at community level have determined the reconsideration of the concession contract as a legal instrument for the capitalization of the public property goods, of the works and services that the state owns.The consolidation, at national level, of some legal norms meant to regulate concession and its forms was significantly influenced by the provisions of Directive 2014/23/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on the award of concession contracts. Thus, Law no. 100/2016 regarding the concession of works and services as well as the recent Government Emergency Ordinance no. 57/2019 on the Administrative Code implement the new European vision.

Open access
Considerations on the Use of Explosive Substances for the Destruction of Metallic Structures

Abstract

Incidents with IEDs containing metallic elements in the vicinity of the explosive substance pose a high degree of risk, endangering safety, peace and public order. In such situations, the methods and procedures applied as response by the authorities are cumbersome and risky, given the improvised nature of these incidents. In this paper we intend to analyze the destructive effect of explosive substances on certain metallic materials and we focus on a U-shaped metallic structure.

Open access
Exemptions Resulting from the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) and European Standards for Intangible Investment, Inventories and Personnel Expenditures in Public Entities

Abstract

Simultaneously with the globalization of economies, it was necessary the adoption and implementation of international accounting standards for the public sector also. In 1996 a set of accounting standards for public sector entities was developed, namely International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS). After 31st July 1998, 32 IPSAS standards, mostly inspired by IASs, centered on model and engagement-based accounting, were issued. IPSAS 1 – Presentation of financial statements relating to the place of intangible assets, inventories and personnel expenses in the content and format of the financial statements is applied to all general purpose financial statements realized under accrual accounting. The IPSAS 12 – Inventory objective is to state the stock accounting treatment. The IPSAS 25 objective – Employee benefits is to state the employee benefits from an accounting perspective.

Open access
National Defence - Its Role and Importance in Ensuring the Image of a Stable State

Abstract

By carrying out the national defence, national interests are protected by the active involvement of state institutions with responsibilities in the field, but not only these, being committed the available resources of the state in order to ensure the sovereignty, the independence, the unity, the territorial integrity and the constitutional democracy, under the conditions of combating any type of aggression. This is achieved through the full exercise of citizens' rights and freedoms, through conscious assumption of responsibilities, and by the affirming a state as an active member of the community and international organisations. The national defence is very well grounded, being regulated at national level by rules approved by the President of the country, by the Government, having the legal opinion of the Supreme Defence Council of the Country.One of the most important resources needed to achieve the national defence is the human resource that needs to be continuously prepared and trained through various forms of preparation. A high level human resource training determines a high level of a state national defence.

Open access