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Open access

Justyna Olędzka

Abstract

State leadership in Russia is determined by historical and cultural as well as by legal and institutional premises. The analysis of ways of obtaining legitimacy by state leaders of the Russian Federation is a borderline issue of political science, sociology, and history. The conditions that favor the creation of the archetype on the Russian ground are undoubtedly: extremely centralized political power in Russia (one central decision-making center whose decisions were arbitrarily arbitrary), the problem of the enforcement of the rules of the trilateral division of power (the legislative sphere dominated the legislature), the low level of control Social rulers (lack of effective legal mechanisms to verify the effects of their activities), paternalism of the leadership system and low participation of representative institutions in public life. The aim of the article is to situate in the field of considerations about the archetype of Russian power the concept of Yuri Pivovarov, according to which not only civilization baggage and the immaturity of civil society have decided the legitimacy of the state leadership of the Russian Federation. According to him, the problem of the participation of the political elite in the redistribution of goods (and the low level of participation of citizens in the process of ownership separation) is of significant importance. According to the theory of the Russian political scientist, the basis for understanding the phenomenon of Russian state leadership is the combination of elements of archetypal leadership with a proper interpretation of the relation of freedom – property.

Open access

Dariusz Miszewski

Abstract

After the German invasion in 1941, the USSR declared to be the defender of the Slavic nations occupied by Germany. It did not defend their allies, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, against the Germans in the 1938-1941. In alliance with Germans it attacked Poland in 1939. Soviets used the Slavic idea to organize armed resistance in occupied nations. After the war, the Soviet Union intended to make them politically and militarily dependent. The Polish government rejected participation in the Soviet Slavic bloc. In the Polish political emigration and in the occupied country the Slavic idea was really popular, but as an anti-Soviet idea. Poland not the Soviet Union was expected to become the head of Slavic countries in Central and South-Eastern Europe.

Open access

Paweł Bielawski

Abstract

The topic of this article is Slavonic identity according to the Zadruga movement. Zadrugians believed that normal cultural and civilizational development of a nation is possible only if there is harmony between the ethnos and spirituality. The believed that Christianity not only alienated Slavs from their native culture and spirituality but also subjugated them to the (German) Holy Roman Empire and Papacy – prime powers of Christendom – through symbolic power. Zadrugians saw the creation of a new, Slavonic-Pagan identity (as opposed to the Christian one) as the only way of breaking what they perceived as “cultural paralysis”. Only through a fundamental change in their national character and mentality, Poles and Slavs will be able to cease being Western civilization’s cultural periphery.

Open access

Jakub Sokół

Abstract

The article analyzes the situation of Serbs in Kosovo in terms of its reception by contemporary Polish nationalists in the magazine “Szczerbiec”. Serbian topics in Polish nationalist communities can count on special interest and recognition. The nationalist environments of many countries are showing solidarity with the Serbian nation in Kosovo and demanding recognition of their rights to these lands. The sympathy shown by Serbs to Poles, whose Slavic origins are linked, is pointed out. It can be assumed that the characteristics, attitude and views of the Serbs will foster mutual relations in the future.

Open access

Farhang Muzzafar Muhamad

Abstract

Children’s literature, despite being a relatively young branch of literature in general, is an important factor in the upbringing of children. Its basic aims have been obvious but not simple to achieve – to develop a child’s personality, provide educational experiences and encourage him to read. Along with areas such as art, theater, puppetry, music, movement and field trips, literature is also an object of children’s attention. Moreover it provides an opportunity to gain experience and learn a lesson, as children are usually open to fairytale-like content. Because of that, a magic world of adventures usually becomes a part of the educational process, imparting moral patterns and exposing them to various experiences, values and attitudes. Listening to stories told by parents, nannies, and teachers, which are later read by children themselves, is an activity beloved by children from all over the world. This research focuses especially on Kurdish experiences in terms of children’s literature and its role in bringing up a child. It indicates essential differences between contents, aims and circumstances upon which certain stories occurred. It provides an explanation of their role in developing a mature personality and patriotism41 upbringing among Kurdish children.

Open access

Arkadiusz Słabig

Abstract

Settled after the “Vistula” Operation in Ziemia Lubuska, the Ukrainian population was supervised by the communist security apparatus. All displaced people were subjected to surveillance, irrespective of the degree of loyalty to the new authority. Operational work on Ukrainians was conducted with varying intensity throughout all the period of the People’s Republic of Poland. The actions taken were not only aimed at “neutralizing” anti-systemic behavior but also accelerating the integration and assimilation processes. The repression of the Ukrainian population, the reduction of contacts with the compatriots abroad, and the paralysis of social and religious activity were to become effective means of accelerating the loss of national, cultural and religious diversity.