Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 266 items for :

  • Pharmacy, other x
  • Clinical Medicine x
Clear All
Open access

Edyta Chwiejczak and Urszula Kosikowska

Abstract

A most common infection is that the upper respiratory tract. The human body is inhabited by millions of microorganisms, most of which enable the proper functioning of some systems and constitute a barrier protecting against harmful external factors. Due to the continuous contact of the upper airway microbiota with the external environment, it may seem to be extremely unstable and very diverse. A number of studies have been conducted that have assessed the effect of various factors on the composition of the upper respiratory tract microbiota. This paper presents a literature analysis which showed that the anatomical area is rich in terms of the microbiota that forms it, and despite the constant changes in many parameters, including physical – very stable.

Open access

Mariia Shanaida, Olena Golembiovska, Nataliia Hudz and Piotr P. Wieczorek

Abstract

The present investigation was to estimate the total phenolic content and composition of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in herbal infusions obtained from aerial parts of three Lamiaceae species (Dracocephalum moldavica, Ocimum americanum and Satureja hortensis). The total phenolic content of herbal infusions was determined using a spectrophotometric method, whereas the individual phenolics were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method was developed and validated. The total phenolic content was measured by applying the Folin-Ciocalteu method with reference to gallic acid. Results were in the range from 29.39 to 65.38 mg estimated as gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry herb. The phenolic profile was, in turn, analysed by HPLC and consisted of gallic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, and rosmarinic) and flavonoids (rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, quercetin, apigenin, apigenin-7-glucoside and catechin) in different concentrations. Rosmarinic acid was the predominant component among the hydroxycinnamic acids in herbal infusions of all three plants. This was found to be in the range of 3.64 to 5.28 mg per gram of dry herb. Apigenin-7-glucoside, quercitrin and hyperoside were the prevailing flavonoid components of the infusions.

Open access

Daria Bednarek-Hatlinska, Anna Prymas, Marta Mrall-Wechta and Anna Surdacka

Abstract

Dentistry, is one of the intensively and rapidly growing branches of medicine. This prompts dentists to take an interdisciplinary approach to their patients. Thus, the dentist, being a general practitioner, can make significant contributions to the early diagnosis of systemic disease and the faster implementation of appropriate treatment. In view of the aforementioned, we undertook research on the relationship of pathological changes observed in the oral cavity with diseases of the connective tissue system. Collagenosis is a chronic autoimmune disease initiated by many factors, among which the genetic factor and viral infections are mentioned. The changes observed in the oral cavity may be a picture of the disease, a complication of the disease or a side effect of the treatment. The aim of the study is, thus, too present the pathological changes in the oral cavity which often accompany collagenosis, and to discuss the risk factors of connective tissue system diseases and methods of dental treatment.

Open access

Amira Benahmed, Boualem Harfi, Ibtissem Benbelkacem, Abla Daas, Hocine Laouer and Abdelmalik Belkhiri

Abstract

Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds is an aromatic plant used for its medicinal values. This study aims to select appropriate conditions for in vitro propagation of M. rotundifolia (L.) Huds and to evaluate yield and antioxidants activity of its essential oils (EOs).

The explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different concentrations of growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Gibberellin (GA3).

Hydrodistillated EOs obtained from acclimatized and mother plant, were evaluated for their antioxidant activity. Tests were performed on DPPH free radical-scavenging, ABTS and CUPRAC assays.

Shoot induction and multiplication were successfully carried out on MS medium supplemented with the following hormones combinations: 1 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l GA3 and 0.5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l GA3, respectively. Stem length, nodes and leaves number measured from development vitroplant were 6.89 cm, 5.22 nodes and 11.92 leaves per vitroplant, respectively.

In vitro rooted plants were successfully acclimatized at a temperature of 23 ± 2°C and a long day photoperiod with a total survival rate exceeding 95%.

EO yield of acclimated plant varied between (0.88-1.49 ml/100 g dry matter) compared to wild plant (0.73 ml/100 g dry matter). The antioxidant potential of EOs from acclimated plant showed on DPPH free radical-scavenging, ABTS and CUPRAC assays values of (IC50: 4.18-24.93 mg/ml), (IC50: 0.51-1.56 mg/ml) and (A0.50: 0.34-2.71 mg/ml), respectively. In contrast, the wild plant exhibited on the same tests the values of (IC50: 10.35 mg/ml), (IC50: 0.12 mg/ml) and (A0.50: 0.99 mg/ml), respectively.

The results suggest that micropropagation of M. rotundifolia (L.) Huds can be an interesting alternative for producing important plant material with the possibility to modulate EO yield and its antioxidant potential for future commercial purposes.

Open access

Katarzyna Cieszczyk, Iwona Pasnik, Lech Wronecki, Anna Ostrowska, Pawel Bojar, Barbara Marzec-Kotarska and Justyna Szumilo

Abstract

Gastric lipomatosis is a condition characterized by the presence of multiple lipomas or diffuse mature adipose tissue infiltration within the gastric wall. The diffuse form is thought to be an extremely rare, with only few described cases. The lesion may be asymptomatic or associated with symptoms and signs depending on location and size. Treatment depends on clinical presentation, range and complications. In a symptomatic disease, it should be surgical, but conservative treatment is preferred for asymptomatic and solitary lesions. Among diagnostic methods, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be the most valuable.

Open access

Khama’al Hussein Abod Al-Khafaji, Mohammed Noori Al-Dujaili and Arshad Noori Al-Dujaili

Abstract

Biomarkers are attractive non-invasive tools for estimating and monitoring pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) disease and for predicting survival in patients with PAH; therefore, many studies encouraged the investigation of new biomarkers to facilitate the diagnosis of PAH. Endostatin (ES) is an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. It is produced by proteolytic cleavage of the collagen XVIII that is present in both normal and cancerous tissue. In vitro examination shows that ES can manage endothelial cells (EC) physiology in ways that could influence angiogenesis. For example, solvent ES hinders EC movement and prompts improvements of the cytoskeleton that incorporate the loss of Actin stretch strands and central grips. This effect embraces restrictions on the α5β1integrins, Tropomyosin, and putative heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Consequences for the human EC cytoskeleton include Es-induced down-regulation of Mitogen-actuated Protein Kinase (MAPK), Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), the Urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA) System, and the RhoA GTPase. Human ES has likewise been shown in a few investigations to repress EC multiplication. Moreover, ES-instigated cell cycle capture in the G1 stage is joined by Cyclin D1 down-regulation. Of note, ES blocks the proliferation and organization of endothelial cells into new blood vessels, and in animal studies, ES also inhibits angiogenesis and the growth of both primary tumors and secondary metastasis. ES was initially identified by its capacity to inhibit tumor angiogenesis in vitro and also in vivo. It can also be found in both healthy and patient’ serum, and has been detected in peripheral circulation. ES could be an attractive, non-invasive prognostic marker for some diseases, notably PAH. Therefore, the presented work is aimed at investigating the ES level in blood serum as a biomarker for detection, diagnosis and early treatment of PAH patients. In doing so, the association is ascertained between gender, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences, smoking, types of PAH (primary and secondary) and this potential biomarker is assessed in PAH patients.

Open access

Angelika Szymczak, Piotr Ksiazek, Sylwia Mojsym-Korybska, Wojciech Skorupa and Albertyna Zbikowska-Machul

Abstract

Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common genetic diseases among Caucasians due to its prevalence. Modern methods of molecular diagnostics and treatment of the disease allow to prolong the life of patients. In order to apply the appropriate treatment, the genetic basis of this disease should, however, first be known. The most common and the most severe mutation present in the CFTR gene (60-70% of cases) takes the form of an allele. This is responsible for the deletion of phenylalanine in position 508 (Δ508) of the CFTR protein. Determination of mutations in the CFTR gene using molecular techniques makes it possible to identify the causes of the disease in people who do not show the characteristic symptoms of cystic fibrosis.

Open access

Anatolii Gordiienko, Mykola Blazheyevskyi and Ivan Iurchenko

Abstract

For comparative purposes, a quantitative estimation of antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds of different classes was conducted by way of the polarography method, via the ADP-Fe2+ model of the induced ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation of rat liver micro-somes within an in-vitro system. As a result, it was recognized that the antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds depend on the nature and chemical structure of several substances. In respect of such activity, leaders in the classes of investigated polyphenolic compounds are: Propyl gallate = Gallotannin (Phenolcarboxylic acids and their derivatives) > Quercetin = Myricetin (Flavonols) > Luteolin (Flavo n) = Mangiferin (Xanthones) > Kaempferol (Flavonols) = Catechin (Flavans). Thus, the assessment of the inhibition ability of the lipid peroxidation of microsomes by phenolic compounds can be used as an accessible test for the preliminary quantitative estimation of their antioxidant properties.

Open access

Souad Hamimed, Nadji Boulebda, Hocine Laouer and Abdelmalik Belkhiri

Abstract

Introduction. The alcohol extract of Pellitory (Anacyclus pyrethrum) roots has been previously shown to exert anticancer activities on the Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line (HCT) by targeting apoptosis, metastasis and cell cycle arrest. However, the nature of the cytotoxic molecules associated with this activity remains unexplored.

Aims. This study aims to reinvestigate Pellitory root extract as regard to its cytotoxic activity and to proceed to a bioguided fractionation to explore its active fraction and to give new insight in their phytochemical constituents.

Methods. Powdered roots were subjected to repeated extraction with Petroleum ether (Pe), Chloroform (Ch), Ethyl acetate (Ea) and Methanol (Me). Pellitory extracts were then screened for cytotoxic activity using the Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) bioassay.

Results. Ea extract exhibited a marked cytotoxic activity, with LC50 of 249.26 μg/mL in the BSL bioassay. The remaining extracts (Pe,Ch,Me) treated groups exhibited no or low mortality in the range of tested concentrations (1-1000 µg/mL). BSL assay-guided chromatographic fractionation of Ea active Extract revealed a highly cytotoxic fraction (F11) with LC50 of 42.5 µg/mL. Multistep purifications of the active F11 fraction afforded four alkamides, namely N-isobutyldeca-2,4-dienamide or Pellitorine (I), N-propyldodeca- -2,8-dienamide (II), N-isobutyltetradeca-2,4-dienamide (III) and N-propylnona-2,5- -dienamide (IV).

Conclusions. This study suggests that cytotoxic activity is localized mainly in the ethyl acetate extract (Ea) of pellitory roots. BSL assay fractionation of this active extract leads to the isolation of four alkamides, including pellitorine (I). While this isobutyl alkamide has previously shown strong cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines, the other compounds (II to IV) were not previously reported as cytotoxic. Subsequently, the isolated alkamides will be considered in future study as candidates for in depth in-vitro evaluation of their cytotoxicity against cancer and normal cell lines. Finally, through this study, BSL assay demonstrate again its usefulness as bench-top assay in exploring plant extracts for cytotoxic compounds.

Open access

Katayoon Karimzadeh

Abstract

Large amounts of valuable waste are produced during sea food processing. This has a great potential for conversion to biologically active proteins and polysaccharides. Among these compounds, sulfated polysaccharides have been considered due to their many biological properties.

The present work was conducted to study anticoagulant activities and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) extracted from the cartilage of sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). The enzymatic extraction of sturgeon cartilage was performed in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride salt. The structure was characterized via electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Herein, ACE inhibitory and anticoagulant properties of extracted GAGs were determined.

The amount of GAGs was 6.8±1.3% of cartilage dry weight. GAGs showed good activity in ACE inhibitory – with a highest level of 85.7%. The derived anticoagulant activity indexes, APPT (activated partial thromboplastin time) and TT (Thrombin time) of the extracted polysaccharide showed a prolonging of clotting time, compare to control.

The results of this study revealed that the cartilage extracted GAGs possess promising ACE inhibitory properties and anticoagulant effects. Thus, the product can be substituted for blood reducing drugs and antithrombotic agents at least in laboratory conditions.