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Open access

Ade Kartikasari Sebba, Baning Rahayujati and Isa Dharmawidjaja

Abstract

Pneumonia is one of the deadliest diseases for children under five years-old throughout the world. In Indonesia, pneumonia is the second deadliest disease after diarrhea. In 2015-2016, the Coverage of pneumonia case detection on children under five years-old increased from 22.33% to 36.06% but it had not achieved the detection target (>85%). A program evaluation needs to conduct, consequently. The evaluation aims to observe the implementation of pneumonia investigation program on children under five years-old in Sleman in 2016. The evaluation used a descriptive design performed in June-July 2017. The research subject was the program of Upper Respiratory Infection (ISPA, Infeksi Saluran Pernapasan Akut) implemented in community health centers (puskesmas, pusat kesehatan masyarakat). Twenty respondents as the sample were chosen by using the purposive sampling technique. The surveillance evaluation employed the input, activities, and output. The instruments were structural questionnaires and checklist sheets. The analysis result was presented in forms of tabulation and narration. From the input facet, 100% respondents have not had any special trainings related to pneumonia. 55% respondents have interlocking jobs with the longest service time of three years or more (75%). 70% respondents are able to show ARI Soundtimer. There are only 10% respondents holding the media of communication, information, and education (KIE, Komunikasi, Informasi, dan Edukasi) in forms of flipchart and leaflet; while 100% respondents admit that they have no stamp seal of URI. The proses facet displays that 100% respondents do not arrange any plan. The case investigation is only passive (100%). 80% respondents do socialization of case management and only 15% respondents perform a home visit. 100% respondents have not held trainings for responsible people, alert villages, and private midwives. From the output facet, the scope of case investigation is still low (36.06%).The implementation of pneumonia case investigation program on children under five years-old has been well executed but there are still weaknesses. Hence, public health offices (dinas kesehatan) should improve their human resources by arranging a training program, equalize the use of breath counting tool and make MoU with all health services to report pneumonia cases. Community health centers are recommended to arrange plans, actively attempt to discover pneumonia cases, and train the responsible people, centers for pre-and postnatal health care (posyandu, pos pelayanan terpadu), or midwives related to the subject of pneumonia.

Open access

Emin Cadar, Emilia Mihaela Cadar, Cristina-Luiza Erimia and Aneta Tomescu

Abstract

Seaweed is a natural treasure that can be intensely evaluated for therapeutic purposes. During the past years, it became obvious that the ecosystem presents a marine algae excedent, which should be utilized in one way or another. Marine algae have been intensely studied. The superior exploitation of the marine biomass represents a highly important resource for the pharmaceutical industry, supplying raw material for the extraction of bioactive substances (vitamins, sterols, and aminoacids) and various other substances, the purity of which is strongly connected to the state of the marine ecosystem. In present work the extracts from marine algae are incorporated in type I non-denatured fibrillar collagen matrixes for obtain new pharmaceutical product. In order to obtain therapeutic effects at nanostructure level, it is important to know the rheological characteristics of the relevant mixtures of collagen gels and extracts from marine algae selected for use. In this survey we have studied mixtures made of non-denatured fibrillar collagen hydro-gels where different concentrations of marine algae have been incorporated.

Open access

Andrei Novac, M. C. Tuttle, R. Bota and B. J. Blinder

Abstract

Over the past years, a multi-disciplinary literature on the significance of personal narratives in autobiography and identity has emerged. This subject has been of interest to authors in the fields of humanities, psychology, and medicine alike. In this paper, we are proposing the term Identity Narrative (IdN) to define a cognitive and emotional framework that serves as an implicit (unconscious) scaffolding of memory on which to build human autobiography. The authors first classify narratives into external (universal history, the humanities, culture) and internal (autobiography, based on personal experiences, both directly and indirectly, through identification and education). All philosophy and social commentary has utilized history for the purposes of prediction and meaning-making. Personalities including Aristotle, St. Augustine, Rousseau, Freud, Marx, Spengler, and Benjamin Franklin have reread history to gain insight about human nature. History has inspired the enlightenment and renaissance of a new reality for humanity. It is widely known that history can also be misused to justify aggression and human suffering. The use of history to create deep convictions that annihilate moral imperatives is only possible because of unconsciously consolidated internal narratives, the IdN. IdN is reshaped through life, both by “bottom-up” acquisition of information, as well as a “top-down” learning model, which includes the following circumstances: (a) sudden insight and awareness; (b) experiences with high emotional valence; (c) high frequency of repetition; and (d) prolonged duration of exposure. In this way, IdN, a form of relatively stable unconscious, anoetic memory, provides a “first-person” experience to autobiography. Autobiography then, becomes part of auto-noetic consciousness, the human ability to mentally time travel and have self-knowledge. IdN parallels lifelong growth and development, language acquisition, and maturing of attachment. The extensive brain activation during communication and speech, revealed by neuroimaging studies, will be referred to as the “communication beltway.” We hypothesize that the alternation in activation between the default mode (midline structures) of the brain (previously associated with the Self) and the language brain creates a platform that encodes crucial components of IdN throughout life. In this way, IdN, autobiographical memory, and the language brain are parts of a larger biological substrate of social affiliations.

Open access

Cristina-Luiza Erimia and Laura Alexandra Mureseanu

Abstract

Currently, in Europe there is a close collaboration between the World Health Organization, the European Union and the Council of Europe with the declared aim to support the implementation of coordinated strategies for the implementation of patient rights, the concerns in this field intensifying, mainly, with the development of Amsterdam Declaration on the Promotion of Patients' Rights in Europe, adopted in 1994. To create a modern healthcare system, there is need for it to be cantered on patients’ needs, to have dynamic and integrated structures, adaptable to the different and ever changing health needs of the society in general and of individuals in particular and which, not least, has to recognize the role of the patient as an active partner in health policies. In this context, this article examines the national legal framework governing the rights, duties, responsibilities and penalties applied in the field of patient rights. This article aims to analyse how patients’ rights in the European Union area are implemented and enforced in the national legislation and the role that patients play in the Romanian health system.

Open access

Angeliki Moisidou

Abstract

A statistical analysis has been conducted with the aim to elucidate the effect of health care systems (HSs) on health inequalities assessed in terms of (a) differential access to health care services and (b) varying health outcomes among different models of HSs in EU-15 [(Beveridge: UK, IE, SE, FI, DK), (Bismarck: DE, FR, BE, LU, AT, NL), (Southern European model: GR, IT, ES, PT)]. In the effort to interpret the results of the empirical analysis, we have ascertained systematic differences among the HSs in EU-15. Specifically, it is concluded that countries with Beveridge HS can be characterized more efficient (than average) in the most examined correlations, showing particularly high performance in the health sector. Similarly, countries with Bismarck HS record fairly satisfactory performance, but simultaneously they display more structural weaknesses compared with the Beveridge model. In addition, our empirical analysis has shown that adopting Bismarck model requires higher economic cost, compared with the Beveridge model, which is directly financed by taxation. On the contrary, in the countries with Southern European HS, the lowest performances are generally identified, which can be attributed to the residual social protection that characterizes these countries. The paper concludes with a synthesis of the empirical findings of our research. It proposes some directions for further research and presents a set of implications for policymakers regarding the planning and implementation of appropriate policies in order to tackle health inequality within HSs.

Open access

Gaal György

Abstract

Zsigmond Purjesz (1846–1918) was born at Szentes (Hungary), and he became MD at Budapest in 1870. In 1880 he applied for and won by competition the professor’s chair of Internal Medicine at Cluj/Kolozsvár University. He taught there for three decades, and founded a medical school. In 1911 he retired and moved to Budapest. According to his wish, he was buried at Kolozsvár.

The first part of our study presents the preliminaries of Purjesz’s appointment to Kolozsvár, based on the documents of the Kolozsvár Medical Faculty kept in the State Archives at Marosvásárhely/Târgu Mureş. Endre Takács from Budapest and Ignác Büchler from Kolozsvár were the other two applicants. A board of three university professors proposed Purjesz on the first, Takács on the second and Büchler on the third place to be appointed as professor. On ministerial proposal the king decided to appoint Purjesz on the 2nd of May, 1880.

In the second part of the study we take into account the recognitions and decorations Purjesz got. In 1893 for his activity during the cholera epidemic he was awarded with the Iron-Crown Order, 3rd class. In 1901 he got the title of Court councilor, which implied the form of address “Right Honorable”. In 1906 at the 25th anniversary of his professorship his students and colleagues compiled a memorial volume dedicated to him. In 1910 the Royal City of Kolozsvár declared him Honorary Citizen. Following his retirement his bust made by György Vastagh was unveiled at the courtyard of the hospital. In 1911, the king recognizing his healing and teaching activity raised him to the rank of Hungarian nobility.

Open access

Kolcsár Melinda, Gáll Zsolt, Bába László-István and Kun Imre Zoltán

Abstract

The relationship between antidepressants (AD) and metabolic syndrome (MS) can be approached from many perspectives. We can start from the mutuality of depression and MS: depression often causes MS and vice versa; however, the two diseases aggravate each other. Altered glucocorticoid secretion - among others - may be a common etiological factor for depression and MS. Enhanced glucocorticoid production leads both to sleep disorders and insulin resistance, and several antidepressants cause obesity and insulin resistance. In addition, sympathetic nervous system activity increases in depression, together with the elevated production of counter-insulin hormones such as catecholamines (adrenaline) and glucocorticoids. From the components of MS, body weight changes can be most easily followed by the patient. The obesogenic mechanisms of AD drugs are different. The H1-receptor blocking agents have the most important weight gaining effect, followed by the 5-HT2c-receptor blocking and/or down-regulating ADs. The fattening effect of mirtazapine, paroxetine, and tricyclic antidepressants are based on such central mechanisms. Blocking of alpha1-receptors contributes to the obesogenic effects of certain drugs by inducing sedation: this has been confirmed in case of imipramine, amitriptyline, and doxepin. Fluoxetine behaves differently depending on the dose and duration of treatment: while at the usual doses it induces weight loss at the beginning of therapy, its initial anorexigenic effects reverses during prolonged use; while its activation effect at high doses is favorable in bulimia. The selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine reduces appetite, similarly to bupropion, which inhibits dopamine reuptake as well. We highlight the effect of fluoxetine on direct adipogenicity, mentioning its preadipocyteadipocyte transformation-reducing and adipocyte proliferation-inhibiting activity, as well as its ability to enhance fat cell autophagy.

Open access

Ábrám Zoltán

Abstract

Fodor József (1843–1901) is the founder of Hungarian hygiene who established the second hygiene department and hygiene institute in the world; he was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He lived in the era of great microbiological discoveries, and his rich and multidisciplinary work has opened up new directions and approaches in science. For a short period of time he was professor at the newly established university from Cluj (Kolozsvár), later he had important contributions to the Hungarian public health act of 1876. His entire professional career represents a very special model by the messages left behind. He was proposed for Nobel Prize in medical (biological) sciences, but he suddenly died on 20 March 1901.

Open access

Abraham P. Buunk and Yvonne A. B. Buunk-Werkhoven

Abstract

Aims: The aim was to examine how sense of defeat and social status are related to perceived oral health, tooth brushing, and oral health-related quality of life among Dutch male forensic psychiatric patients.Methods: The sample consisted of 40 hospitalized forensic psychiatric patients participated. The questionnaire included five questions about moments of tooth brushing, scales for sense of defeat and subjective social status, a scale from 1 to 10 for perceived oral health and a Dutch version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14).Results: The results showed that on the basis of a factor analysis of the OHIP-14, three meaningful scales could be constructed, i.e., functional limitations, social discomfort, and psychological inhibitions. The major results revealed that sense of defeat correlated negatively with tooth brushing after breakfast and before going to sleep, positively with social discomfort because of one’s teeth, mouth, or dentures, not with functional limitations, and negatively with self-perceived oral health. Social status correlated positively with tooth brushing before going to sleep, with psychological inhibitions, but not with social discomfort, and neither with functional limitations.Conclusions and implications: The major conclusion is that sense of defeat and social status have theoretically meaningful relations with oral self-care and oral health. Oral health professionals working with male forensic psychiatric patients should be sensitive to the sense of defeat these patients may experience, and to the fact that this may be associated with problems with their oral health and with a lack of oral self-care.