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Experimental Verification of Method to Synthesize the Track Vertical Irregularities

Abstract

The paper focuses on the experimental verification of the results derived from numerical simulations, based on a model of the bogie-track system, where the vertical track irregularities are introduced in the form of a pseudorandom function. This function comes from an original method of synthesizing the vertical track irregularities, depending on the geometric quality of the track and on the velocity. To verify the method, the root mean square (RMS) of the simulated accelerations in the axles and the bogie frame against each axle is compared to the experimental accelerations within the frequency range of wavelengths of the track vertical irregularities from 3 to 120 m. The results have shown a good correlation between the simulated RMS accelerations for a low quality track and the measured RMS accelerations.

Open access
Innovative Calculation Method of the Productivity of Vibrating Screens Used in Mineral Aggregates Sorting

Abstract

In the process of preparing cement or asphalt concrete – frequently used in ways, roads and access road construction, it is necessary to sort out poly-dispersed granular mixtures from bilge deposits or quarries. The mechanical sieving performs the separation of the granules on dimensional sorts (the size of graded grains can be 1... 70 mm) by means of machines called screeners. In the case of vibrating screeners, the working body (the sieve) presents a vibratory movement that ensures a high productivity of the screening machine and a very good quality of the final products obtained. The article studies the productivity of the vibrating screen used in mineral aggregates sorting process obtained by different methods. In this regard, a pragmatic simplified formula called Pragma is proposed, a formula which was tested with good results in situ experiments done on a bi-mass vibrating screen in a pilot station.

Open access
Modal Competition and Complementarity: Cost Optimization at End-User Level

Abstract

The paper aims to identify possible methods for balancing the allocation of transport flow on modal subsystems in order to efficiently use the infrastructures and reduce the negative effects of today’s unbalance. The aspects of intermodal competition are reviewed, considering the economic concepts regarding the substitutability of transportation services, conformation degree to the perfect competition model and the nature of cross elasticity demand.

A top-down analysis over the whole infrastructure assembly is performed. The results, under the presumption of valid work hypothesis, indicated that for further analysis the set of networks transferring material flows can be assumed as disconnected from the other networks sets transferring energy, informational and values flows.

The second part of the paper develops, for that disconnected networks, a generalized cost optimization model for multimodal transportation, where the comfort and safety are accounted. Thus, the performance of the existing algorithms based only on trip length, trip duration and energy consumption can be significantly improved. Additionally, the author proposes three new independent types of modal analysis that allow end-users and companies involved in transport organization to optimize their modal choice and the whole transport process organization.

Open access
Preliminary Studies to Use Textile Fibers Obtained from Recycled Tires to Reinforce Asphalt Mixtures

Abstract

The use of crumb rubber in the modification of asphalt has occurred because of the problems related to disposal of scrap tires. However, the use of scrap tires in asphalt pavements, known as asphalt rubber pavements, can minimize environmental impacts and maximize conservation of natural resources. The textile fibers from recycled tires are typically disposed of in landfills or used in energetic valorization, but similar to other fibers, they can be used as a valuable resource in the reinforcement of engineering materials such as asphalt mixtures. Thus, this work aims at studying the use of textile fibers recycled from ground tires in the reinforcement of conventional asphalt mixtures. The application of textile fibers from ground tires was evaluated through laboratory tests on specimens extracted from slabs produced in the laboratory. Indirect tensile tests were performed on a series of nine asphalt mixtures with different fiber and asphalt contents and compared with a conventional mixture. The results obtained from a 50/70 pen asphalt were used to define three asphalt mixture configurations to be used with 35/50 pen asphalt. The results indicate that the textile fibers recycled from used tires can be a valuable resource in the reinforcement of asphalt mixtures.

Open access
Simultaneous Influence of the Track Axis Curvature and the Support Line Obliquity at Railway Bridge Superstructures with Steel Beams Embedded in Concrete

Abstract

For new railway bridges with small spans (L ≤ 35.00 m) superstructures with steel beams embedded in concrete are recommended and used, which can ensure the requirements of strength and especially stiffness, regardless of velocity.

In all the design prescriptions used so far for superstructures with steel beams embedded in concrete, and even in the technical literature, there is little information and data on the influence of the support line obliquity and the track axis curvature in the design and calculation of these types of structures.

In the design code, if certain conditions related to the geometry of the superstructure are met (obliquity, curvature) the calculation is a simplified one, made on a single isolated longitudinal beam of the deck; otherwise, if the conditions are not met, finite element program analysis is recommended.

The article aims to study the situations in which the requirements of the design prescriptions are not met.

Open access
Testing the Functionality and Performance of a Rail Damper

Abstract

The rail dampers are mechanical devices which work as dynamic absorbers to reduce the rail vibration and rolling noise. The paper shows the experimental results from the functionality and performance testing of an experimental demonstrative rail damper. The vibration attenuation takes the highest values, namely 6-22 dB, between 160 and 1000 Hz.

Open access
Comparative Study on the Applicability of Analytical and Experimental Methods in the Analysis of the Safe Use of Rail Tankers Carrying Petroleum Products Under Pressure

Abstract

The safety of railways has been and remains a critical topic. Whether it is infrastructure or rolling stock, the issue of safety is a permanent concern of the utmost importance, being reflected in the efficiency of any transport system.

This paper focuses on the safety in operation of pressure vessels that equip railway tanks. There are many articles and works on this subject, and it is well-known that there are both national and international regulations regarding their design, execution, operation and maintenance. Also, there are quite a few reports on the BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) phenomenon resulting in material damage and significant casualties. The BLEVE-type explosion is not considered a chemical explosion derived from a gas-air explosive environment (also present in non-flammable gases), but rather a mechanical explosion through over-pressurization.

Thus, we propose a comparative study between the results obtained using theoretical methods and those obtained as a result of tensoresistive measurements on such a tanker.

Open access
Optimization of the Synergies Between Preparation of High-Speed Railway Train Running Diagram and Station Route Allocation Plan

Abstract

Introduction. Station route allocation plan is an important extension of the train running diagram and the both are closely intertwined so the overall research on the synergetic preparation method is more beneficial in improving the preparation quality of the train running diagram and providing better service for passengers. Therefore, the research topic has practical significance.

Methodology. Based on extensive literatures, this paper studies the synergetic preparation method of train running diagram and station route allocation plan in detail and analyses their association for providing a theoretical basis for the synergetic preparation method.

Results. This work introduces the synergetic, analyses the systematic characteristics of the operation organization system of high speed railway and puts forward the optimization strategy of train running diagram and station route allocation plan.

Conclusions. The work provides the solution for the preparation of the train running diagram and station route allocation plan by solving the examples based on the relevant optimization factors, such as train running in districts and train arrangement.

Open access
Pedestrianism as an Effective Tool for Sustainable Intra-City Commuting in Calabar, Southern Nigeria

Abstract

The promotion of walking has become a global strategy in sustainable urban transportation planning. This is with the aim of reducing the urban commuter’s problems that result from the dominance of motorized urban transit, especially in developing countries with an increasing rate of urbanization. This study is carried out in Calabar, Southern Nigeria with the aim of assessing the conditions under which pedestrianism is enhanced. Research questionnaires were administered to household heads in all 22 localities with political delineation (wards) in the city. Respondents were sampled using the stratified sampling technique where every 10th residential house is sampled after the initial listing of houses. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict the conditions under which about 382 household heads (about 98% respondent rate) in Calabar could undertake utilitarian walking using factors such as motorized traffic, weather conditions, lack of safety of pedestrians and socio-economic variables as category predictors. A test of the full model against a constant single model was statistically significant, indicating that the predictors, as a set, reliably distinguished utilitarian walking and non-walking (chi square = 60.544, p < .001 with df = 17). Nagelkerke’s R2 of .232 indicated a moderately strong relationship between prediction and grouping. Prediction success overall was 70.5% (53.5% for non-walking, and 81.5% for walking). The Wald criterion demonstrated that only pedestrian conflict, lack of safety of pedestrian and the age of the pedestrian made a significant contribution to the prediction in model 1 (p = .000). Furthermore, about 99.2% of pedestrians indicated walking distances of not more than 5km while on the other hand, they can afford 0.8km to bus station, 3km to school, 5km for shopping, and about 20km for recreation trips. The study recommended counseling strategies for promoting pedestrianism among which is the development of pedestrian walkways and complementary facilities to enhance pedestrian safety and comfort.

Open access
Rationale of Complex Indicator of Quality of Public Transport

Abstract

The significance of the criteria for assessing the quality of the urban passenger transport is investigated in the article. The results of the processing of field studies have identified factors that can be used for the assessment of the quality of the projects of urban passenger transport. The method of estimation of indicators of quality for the passengers during the trip is given and the values of weighting coefficients of individual quality indicators for the elements of the trip are determined. The method of determining the complex quality indicator during the performance of the trips in the projects of public transport is developed. It is shown that the trip components influence the quality of passenger trips in the following order: waiting time at the stop, time of the pedestrian part of the trip, travel time, dynamic coefficient of capacity utilization.

Open access