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Bending of an annular three-layer circular plate

Abstract

The main objective of this work is the numerical analysis of the strength and stiffness of an annular three-layer circular plate with variable mechanical properties of the core. The plates are subjected to bending. Numerical analysis of the deflection phenomenon is carried out under different support conditions of the plate. Furthermore, the influence of the material properties of the core (linear and non-linear model) on the shear stresses and deflecions is also investigated.

Open access
Development of a computational model of a lightweight vertical lathe with the use of superelements

Abstract

This article presents a process of developing a computational model of a light construction vertical lathe. The model is made using the finite elements method. Due to the complexity of the machine tool and the optimization of the computation time superelements have been used in the model. The application of this method has reduced the computation time allowing the analysis of many variants of the mutual position of the machine components. The results of the analyzes led to the indication of weak links of the machine tool. After the improvement of the machine tool construction the movement of the tool tip and the workpiece was much smaller.

Open access
Influence of heat treatment on the structure and properties of polyamide 6/ halloysite nanocomposites

Abstract

The nanocomposites of polyamide 6 (PA6) with halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were prepared by extrusion using co-rotating twin-screw extruder and then the standard test specimens were injected using a screw injection moulding machine. The content of HNT in the nanocomposites was 5 or 10 weight percent. The heat treatment of unmodified PA6 and nanocomposites was carried out in silicone oil in temp. 150±2°C. The samples were annealed for 3 hours and then cooled at a rate of 4 K/min. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) causes annealing to increase the crystallinity of the polyamide matrix. After an annealing treatment a nanocomposite with better mechanical properties was obtained. Halloysite nanotubes in polyamide matrix play the role of a nucleating agent.

Open access
Kinematic model of multiple trailers on a tractor system for production logistics applications

Abstract

This paper demonstrates kinematic analysis of multiple trailers on a tractor system for production logistics. The analysis concerned three different steering systems of the trailers: virtual clutch and drawbar system, conventional clutch and drawbar system, double Ackermann steering system. Designed kinematic models contain various variants of paths: turning at a constant value of the steering angle, changing the steering angle as a result of an approaching collision. Each of these variants also included driving in a straight line after a 90° turn. The validation of the developed kinematic model was done by using a real logistic train, which path was registered via aerial drone. For each of the developed kinematic models, a visualization of drive through the 90° turn was created.

Open access
Measurement strategy as a determinant of the measurement uncertainty of an optical scanner

Abstract

The subject of the article is an attempt to determine the impact of the applied measurement strategy on the accuracy of the measurement result. This problem is particularly crucial when measuring large objects. In these cases, it is not always possible to provide ideal conditions for the submission of particular scans. It is necessary to adjust the strategy to specific imposed conditions defined by the geometry of the object and to the time frame of the measurement itself.

With regard to the above, an attempt was made to carry out a series of accuracy studies testing the structural light scanner while measuring elements of overall dimensions greater than the measuring capacity of the scanner. At the same time, various potential measuring strategies were simulated in practical applications. Our studies were conducted using a pre-designed test template with a defined distribution pattern of reference points and geometrical elements. Moreover, in order to make an in-depth investigation of the issue, some trials were undertaken with the use of limiting parameters. That means the scanner had both an excess and shortage of information required for a correct assembly of scans. Those scopes were taken into consideration in the study in order to use the acquired knowledge in practical measuring applications. Furthermore, conclusions from the conducted studies indicate peaks and troughs of respective measuring strategies with special care for determining relationships among the used strategies and the measuring accuracy parameters.

Open access
Simplifications of the volumetric error model because of the structural loop of machine tools

Abstract

After many years of intensive work the international experts from ISO TC 39 published the technical report called ISO TR 16907 “Machine tools – numerical compensation of geometric errors”. This document defines the terminology, presents benefits and limitations of numerical compensation of machine tools’ and measuring machines’ errors. It gives machines manufacturers and users vital information about how to use numerical compensation. In the context of those types of compensation defined in ISO TR 16907, this article shows rules of selecting models of Volumetric Error for three-axis machine tools. What is more, this paper presents some principles of reduction of these proposed models because of the functional tasks for machine tools. One of the obtained results is an array of reduced models for three-axis machine tools. This array determines the degree of detail of the model and the experimental research program that needs to be carried out in order to determine the Volumetric Error distribution.

Open access
Comparison of selected surface topography parameters after the turning of Inconel 625 obtained by the additive techniques to the parameters of the material made by the traditional techniques

Abstract

The paper presents the possibilities of additive manufacturing of the selected alloy, Inconel, for production of ready-made elements. The results of surface topography examination of the material manufactured with the use of the device 557 RPMI working in the LDT technology (LDT = Laser Deposition Technology) have been compared to those of thecold drawn material. The surfacejust after manufacturing inthese two technologies has been compared to the one after machining by means of variable machining parameters. The surface roughness parameter, Sskis positive for all the surfaces of thesamplemade by the traditional technology, regardless of the feed. This means that most of the material is located close to the valleys. The surfaces are characterised by right-hand side asymmetry. In all the surfaces of the sample made by the additive technology, regardless of the feed value, the surface roughness parameter, Ssk, is negative, which means that most of the material is located close to the peaks.

Open access
Numerical and experimental analyses of non-energy absorbing lighting poles

Abstract

Apart from the strength requirements, modern lighting pole designs have to meet a number of safety requirements in the event of collisions. The paper compares the experimental tests performed at the collision test track according to EN 12767 with the results of the numerical analysis carried out in Ansys LS-DYNA. The objective of the work is to prepare a new structure of a thin-walled lighting pole of steel which minimizes absorption of the kinetic energy of the vehicle and, simultaneously, its production costs are comparable to those of a standard pole. The tests were carried out at an impact speed of 100 km/h.

Open access
The reliability of reproducing automotive components made by FDM printing in reverse engineering

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to show the practical side of reverse engineering.Many times during the process of optimizing parts, before we intervene in the tool that produces them, we want to makesure that the optimization will work in practice.For this purpose, currently, we often use 3D printers. Unfortunately, they introduce distortions of geometry to the printed prototyperesultingfrom the technology of its production.

Open access
The Numerical Investigation of Thin-Walled Beams with Modified C-Sections

Abstract

Demand for thin-walled structures has been increasing for many years. Cold- formed, thin-walled channel beams are the subject of presented research. The local elastic buckling and limit load of these beams subjected to pure bending are investigated. This study includes numerical investigation called the Finite Strip Method (FSM). The presented results give a deep insight into behaviour of such beams and may be used to validate analytical models. The number of works devoted to the theory of thin-walled structures has been steadily growing in recent years. It means that is an increasing interest in practical methods of manufacturing cold-formed thin-walled beams with complicated cross-sections, including also beams with web stiffeners. The ratio of transverse dimensions of beam to its wall-thickness is high, therefore, thin-walled beams are prone to local buckling that may interact with other buckling modes. The stability constraints should be always considered when using cold-formed thin-walled beams.

Open access