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Open access

Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak, Marcin Michałek, Karolina Kapturska, Alicja Cepiel, Adrian Janiszewski, Robert Pasławski, Piotr Skrzypczak and Urszula Pasławska

Abstract

Introduction: Pacemaker implantation is the only effective symptomatic treatment for life-threatening bradyarrhythmias. Major complications observed after implantation of cardiac pacemakers include lead dislocation, loss of pulse generator function, and inadequate stimulation. The aim of this retrospective single-centre study was to analyse the indications for pacemaker implantation and the incidence and types of complications associated with this procedure in dogs treated for symptomatic bradyarrhythmia.

Material and Methods: The retrospective analysis included 31 dogs with symptomatic bradyarrhythmia, implanted with permanent cardiac pacemakers in 1992–2017. The list of analysed variables included patient age, breed, sex, indication for pacemaker implantation, comorbidities, and the incidence of procedure-related complications along with the type thereof.

Results: The most common indication for pacemaker implantation was 3rd degree AVB, followed by SSS, advanced 2nd degree AVB, and PAS. Pacemaker implantation was associated with a 35% overall complication rate and 6.45% periprocedural mortality. There were no significant differences in terms of procedure-related complications with regard to age, sex, breed, indications for pacemaker implantation, or comorbidities.

Conclusions: Cardiac pacing is the only effective treatment of symptomatic bradycardia, but as an invasive procedure, may pose a risk of various complications, including death.

Open access

Agnieszka Tylkowska, Bogumiła Pilarczyk, Renata Pilarczyk, Michał Zyśko and Agnieszka Tomza-Marciniak

Abstract

Introduction: Foxes are a reservoir of parasites that are dangerous to humans. The aim of the study was to determine the parameters associated with the occurrence of tapeworms in red foxes in north-western Poland.

Material and Methods: Parasitological sections were taken from 620 red foxes using IST and SCT methods in 18 districts of West Pomerania Province.

Results: The extensity of fox infection with tapeworms was 61%. Echinococcus multilocularis, Mesocestoides spp., Dipylidium caninum, and specimens of the genus Taenia were identified. E. multilocularis was found in 11 districts. Mesocestoides spp. demonstrated the highest prevalence (41.3%), while E. multilocularis demonstrated the lowest prevalence (2.9%); however, it infected foxes with the greatest mean intensity (235.6 tapeworms per fox). The most common co-occurrence in a single host organism was observed for Mesocestoides spp. and tapeworms of the genus Taenia; however, no examples were found of coinfection by E. multilocularis and D. caninum.

Conclusion: The occurrence of tapeworms in foxes was high in West Pomerania Province and was often higher than observed in previous years. For this reason, the risk of parasite transmission to humans and domestic animals is mounting. The risk of infection is also amplifying due to the growth of the fox population.

Open access

Marcin Gołyński, Michał Metyk, Piotr Szkodziak, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Grzegorz Kalisz, Marcin Szczepanik, Piotr Wilkołek and Piotr Dobrowolski

Abstract

Introduction: Thyroid hormones play a major role in the regulation of testicular maturation and growth and in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell functions in adulthood. When naturally occurring, hypothyroidism causes male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Sertoli cell function disorders, but when iatrogenic and methimazole-induced its influence on the pituitary-testicular axis function with respect to Sertoli cells is poorly known.

Material and Methods: Male adult Wistar rats (n = 14) were divided into two groups: E – taking methimazole orally for 60 days, and C – control animals. After 60 d, the concentrations in serum of testosterone, follicle-stimulating and luteinising hormones, and inhibins A and B were measured. Testicles were examined morphologically: the apoptotic Sertoli cell percentage (ASC%) and number of these cells functional per tubular mm2 (FSCN/Tmm2) were calculated.

Results: In group E, inhibin A was higher while inhibin B was lower than in group C. ASC% was higher and FSCN/Tmm2 lower in group E than in group C.

Conclusion: A specific modulation of Sertoli cell function in the course of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism leads to a simultaneous concentration increase in inhibin A and decrease in B. Inhibin A might share responsibility for pituitary-testicular axis dysfunction and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in this model of hypothyroidism.

Open access

Anna Snarska, Dominika Wysocka and Liliana Rytel

Abstract

Introduction: Statins are pharmacological agents commonly used to lower serum cholesterol level. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the effect of the statin simvastatin on thrombopoiesis in the porcine model because it is the closest to the human one regarding physiological and genetic similarities.

Material and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 32 pigs randomly divided into two equal groups: control and experimental. The pigs were treated for 28 and 56 days with simvastatin in a dose of 40 mg per day per animal. Cytological evaluation of bone marrow smears was performed to assess the average number of all types of cells during thrombopoiesis as was analysis of haematological parameters to assess PLT and MPV.

Results: During the course of the experiment statistically significant changes in the number of promegakaryocytes were observed. Other parameters also showed some fluctuations during the study. However, these changes were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The obtained results clearly indicate a toxic influence of simvastatin on the process of thrombopoiesis and prove that statins reduce mean platelet volume, thus affecting the process of clot formation through the period of administration in a duration-dependent manner.

Open access

Takfarinas Idres, Ali Lamara, Soraya Temim, Sofiane Boudjellaba, Jean Gagnon and Yahia Chebloune

Abstract

Introduction: Infection of goats with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) has been detected in variable proportions in many countries all over the world. Here, we investigated the seroprevalence of CAEV in goats raised in Algeria.

Material and Methods: A serological survey was performed on serum samples from 1,313 goats, including the local breeds (Arabia and Dwarf of Kabylia) and imported European breeds (Alpine and Saanen). Blood samples were taken from goats on 38 farms distributed across four different geographical regions of Algeria. Serum samples were tested for CAEV antibodies using a commercial ELISA.

Results: A total of 390 serum samples were found to be positive for CAEV, giving an overall seropositivity rate of 29.7% in individual animals and 97.37% (37/38) at the goat farm level.

Conclusion: These results provide the first large-scale serological evidence for the presence of CAEV infection in both the local and imported breeds of goats raised in Algeria, indicating that the virus infection is widespread.

Open access

Anna Śmiech, Wojciech Łopuszyński, Brygida Ślaska, Kamila Bulak and Agnieszka Jasik

Abstract

Introduction: Breed predisposition to cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCT) in a population of dogs in Poland affected by various skin tumours was assessed, and the distribution of MCT characteristics such as histological grading, sex, age, and location, in predisposed breeds was evaluated.

Material and Methods: The retrospective epidemiological study included 550 dogs affected by cutaneous MCTs with a reference group of 2,557 dogs diagnosed with other skin tumours.

Results: A univariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. The risk of high-grade MCTs was the highest for Shar-Peis (OR: 26.394) and American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.897). Boxers (OR: 6.619), Labrador Retrievers (OR: 2.630), French Bulldogs (OR: 2.050), Golden Retrievers (OR: 1.949), and American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.592) were mainly affected by low-grade MCTs. The high risk of MCT was calculated to be at the age of 4–6 years for Labrador Retrievers (OR: 2.686) and 7–10 years for Boxers (OR: 2.956) and French Bulldogs (OR: 9.429). MCTs were significantly more often located on the trunk in French Bulldogs (OR: 4.680), American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.520), and Labrador Retrievers (OR: 1.948). There was no statistically significant correlation between gender and the occurrence of MCTs in the breeds.

Conclusions: The breed-predicated differences in the clinical course of MCTs suggest a genetic background for the tumours.

Open access

Fei-Fei Chang, Chang-Chieh Chen, Shao-Hung Wang and Chiou-Lin Chen

Abstract

Introduction: Laryngeal swab samples collected from three waterfowl slaughterhouses in central Taiwan were cultured and suspected isolates of Riemerella anatipestifer were identified by API 20NE and 16S rDNA PCR.

Material and Methods: Serum agglutination was used for serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility was tested.

Results: Seventy-six R. anatipestifer isolates were detected, and the prevalences in the ducks and geese were 12.3% (46/375) and 8.0% (30/375), respectively. The positive isolation rates were 65.6% for all arriving waterfowl, 76.0% for birds in the holding area, 1.6% for defeathered carcasses, but zero for degummed carcasses. A PCR examination detected R. anatipestifer in the slaughtering area frequently. Serotype B was dominant in both duck (34.8%) and goose (46.7%) isolates, but the wide serotype distribution may very well impede vaccination development. All isolates were resistant to colistin, and 79.7% were resistant to more than three common antibiotics.

Conclusion: The results proved that most ducks had encountered antibiotic-resistant R. anatipestifer in rearing, which suggests that the bacterium circulates in asymptomatic waterfowl. It is worth noting that most waterfowl farms were found to harbour R. anatipestifer, and contaminated slaughterhouses are a major risk factor in its spread. Effective prevention and containment measures should be established there to interrupt the transmission chain of R. anatipestifer.

Open access

Lu-Lu Wang, Shi-Ying Lu, Pan Hu, Bao-Quan Fu, Yan-Song Li, Fei-Fei Zhai, Dan-Di Ju, Shi-Jun Zhang, Bing Su, Yu Zhou, Zeng-Shan Liu and Hong-Lin Ren

Abstract

Introduction: Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a bifunctional protein with glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity. Previous studies have shown a significant positive correlation between the intracellular survival ability of Brucella and Prdx6. Here, the Prdx6 enzyme with a single activity was constructed to facilitate study of the relationship between the single function of Prdx6 and Brucella infection.

Material and Methods: The target open reading frame (ORF) DNAs of Prdx6 with a single active centre were prepared using gene splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR), and the recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmids inserted by Prdx6 with the single activity centre were constructed and transfected into murine Raw264.7 macrophages. The glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity of the constructed Prdx6 were examined.

Results: The core centres (Ser32 and Cys47) of Prdx6 were successfully mutated by changing the 94th nucleotide from T to G and the 140th nucleotide from G to C in the two enzyme activity cores, respectively. The constructed recombinant plasmids of Prdx6 with the single active centre were transfected into murine macrophages showing the expected single functional enzyme activity, which MJ33 or mercaptosuccinate inhibitors were able to inhibit.

Conclusion: The constructed mutants of Prdx6 with the single activity cores will be a benefit to further study of the biological function of Prdx6 with different enzyme activity.

Open access

Agnieszka Wojtkowiak-Giera, Elżbieta Wandurska-Nowak, Monika Derda, Wiesława Jankowska, Paweł P. Jagodziński and Edward Hadaś

Abstract

Introduction

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the rapid activation of the innate immune response to a variety of pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on the level of expression of the tlr4 gene in mouse intestines during the intestinal phase of experimental trichinellosis.

Material and Methods

The experimental material consisted of the small and large intestines of BALB/c mice infected with Trichinella spiralis sampled at 4, 8, and 16 days post infection (dpi).

Results

A statistically significant increase was demonstrated in the tlr4 mRNA level isolated from the infected mice jejunum at 4, 8, and 16 dpi over the uninfected control. Moreover, at 4, 8, and 16 dpi in the jejunum of infected mice, a strong positive reaction for the presence of TLR4 protein compared with that of uninfected mice was observed.

Conclusion

Infection with T. spiralis changes the expression of the tlr4 gene in the small intestine of the mouse host.

Open access

Ana Oliveira, Joana S.P. Devesa, Peter B. Hill, Vanessa Silva and Patrícia Poeta

Abstract

Introduction

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis often cause skin diseases in dogs.

Material and Methods

An online survey was e-mailed to veterinary practices nationwide covering demographics, diagnosis methods, and oral and topical treatment options. Of the 740 surveys sent, 100 complete replies were obtained.

Results

The majority of clinicians were unaware of the existence of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases guidelines or did not follow them (53%). Oral antibiotics were used universally for superficial bacterial folliculitis treatment, particularly amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), cephalexin (94%), enrofloxacin (67%), or marbofloxacin (60%). For fold dermatitis (FD) and otitis externa (OE), oral antibiotics were also given as treatment in 88% and 82% of cases, respectively. Oral antifungals were often prescribed for generalised Malassezia dermatitis (85%), FD (70%), and OE (59%). S. pseudintermedius and M. pachydermatis were frequently treated topically, particularly with antibacterials or antifungals only, or a combination of antibacterials, antifungals, and glucocorticoids. Alternative options such as honey-based products were not frequently used.

Conclusion

Our survey suggests that oral antibiotics are overused by Portuguese clinicians despite the spread of antibiotic resistant S. pseudintermedius. Oral antibiotics and antifungals are commonly prescribed for skin conditions manageable with topical treatments.