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Open access

Paolo Manfredi, Chiara Cassinari, Roberta Salvi, Raffaella Battaglia, Adriano Marocco and Marco Trevisan

Summary

Reconstitution is a pedotechnique to counter land degradation and desertification. The reconstitution, patented by the research laboratory m.c.m. Ecosistemi, applies chemical-mechanical actions to a mixture of degraded soil and matrices (such as waste sludge) in order to produce reconstituted soil, a very high fertility soil. This paper is about a pot study in a greenhouse to investigate how reconstituted soil affects emergence speed and seminal roots development of Zea mays L. seedlings, in comparison with a Technosol. 200 seedlings are monitored up to the 16th day after the seeding. The emergence percentage is 98% on reconstituted soil and 91% on Technosol. Average length and weight of fresh seminal roots are higher on reconstituted soil.

Open access

Dragan Radojković, Radomir Savić, Mladen Popovac, Čedomir Radović and Marija Gogić

Summary

The share of variance components and correlations between the most important sow production traits (namely duration of fattening - DF, backfat thickness - BF and number of liveborn piglets - NBA) included in the pig breeding selection programme of the Republic of Serbia were estimated in this paper. The litter size at repeated farrowings (NBA1,..., NBA6) was treated as a separate trait (the multi-trait model), whereas the litter size at birth was treated as a trait repeated a number of times (the repeatability model)). The estimation of dispersion parameters was performed using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) method. The heritability of DF accounted for 23.5%, i.e. 23.3% depending on the model used, whereas BF accounted for 40.4% in both cases. The heritability of the litter size in consecutive farrowings (the multi-trait model) were in intervals ranging between 0.104 (NBA1) and 0.136 (NBA5). The heritability of NBA in the repeatability treatment accounted for 0.106, whereas the common litter environment and the permanent sow influence contributed to the total variability with 1.1% and 5.6%, respectively. Genetic correlations between the traits examined were not determined, with the exception of consecutive farrowings in the multi-trait treatment of the litter size. The genetic correlations recorded in this case proved positive and complete, with the exception of the correlation between the first and subsequent farrowings (farrowings 3 to 6) and the correlation between the second and the last farrowings (farrowings 5 and 6), which proved very strong.

Open access

Benjamin Oyelami, Jonathan Akinwale and Ademola Ladele

Summary

Over the years, provision of extension and advisory services has been the main thrust of both the public and private extension services in Nigeria. Meanwhile, the lead farmer extension approach has been deployed for cost effectiveness, broader reach and sustainability. The utility value of this approach needs to be empirically established. This study therefore examined the extent to which the approach has achieved the intended objectives among randomly sampled maize farmers in Iseyin and Saki-West Local Government Areas (LGAs). Interview schedule and focus group discussion among farmer groups were used for the study. Lead farmer extension approach was cost and time effective vis-a-vis the number of farmers reached and the achieved outcome. Almost 70% of the lead farmers encountered late arrivals and impatience from group members during step-down training activities while all of them complained of insufficient funds for refreshment. About 65% of the farmers engaged in selective adoption of the training items owing to various reasons. There was also a significant difference between the knowledge level of the lead farmers and their respective group members while the group members’ assessment of their respective lead farmers’ performance was high. The study concluded that this extension approach was effective and could serve to complement the efforts of extension workers in the state.

Open access

Gorica Vuković, Vojislava Bursić, Tijana Stojanović, Aleksandra Petrović, Sonja Gvozdenac, Mira Starović, Slobodan Kuzmanović and Goran Aleksić

Summary

The undemanding LC-MS/MS method was developed for the synchronized analysis of atropine and scopolamine in maize crop. The dSPE was carried out with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile/water and a mixture of magnesium sulphate, sodium chloride and sodium citrate. The analytes were separated on a Zorbax XDB C18 column using methanol/water as the mobile phase in gradient mode. The detection was done using a tandem masss spectrometry (MS/MS) in the positive ESI. The tropane alkaloids exhibited excellent linearity in the range of 2-20 µg/kg with the LOQ of 5 µg/kg for maize. The extraction recoveries of atropine and scopolamine were 65.7 and 85.5% with the intraday RSDr 10.25 and 4.29%, respectively. The validated method was appled to real maze samples. One sample contained 18.8 µg/kg of atropine and 6.3 µg/kg of scopolamine.

Open access

Jana Bilčíková, Veronika Fialková, Eva Kováčiková, Michal Miškeje, Barbara Tombarkiewicz and Zuzana Kňažická

Summary

Niobium, osmium, scandium, tungsten and vanadium are transition metals naturally occuring in the environment, particularly in the Earth’s crust. Anthropogenic activities, primarily industrial technologies, have precipitated significant alternations in the concentration and distribution of these metals. Such a dramatic change resulted, by all means, in the bigger potential of the environmental exposure, which poses a threat not only to humans but to all biological systems. Certain elements naturally occur in the animal and human plasma and tissues, but their concentrations are sometimes too low to be detected using the existing modern technologies. In small amounts, such elements are not harmful and some of them have even been suggested to have a beneficial role in the human or animal physiology. However, exposure to excessive antropogenically elevated levels can exert serious negative effects on the environment, agriculture and health. The findings summarized in this paper provide a review of the current knowledge about the implications of the transition metals considered on the health, accentuating the insufficiency and need for more relevant data.

Open access

Mirjana Đukić Stojčić and Lidija Perić

Summary

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the storage period on the quality characteristics of Bovans Brown table eggs. Eggs from 47-week-old hens were sampled on the day of laying and stored in a refrigerator (4°C) for periods of 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Measurements were performed for each storage period relative to the most important quality parameters of eggs. The following egg parameters were evaluated: weight, weight loss, shell breaking force, albumen height, Haugh units and yolk color. The results obtained show that the albumen height and Haugh unit (HU) were affected by the storage period and are of immense importance. The following parameters were found to be significantly influenced by different storage periods: weight loss (P<0.05), albumen height (P<0.05) and Haugh unit (P<0.01). Rapid reductions in the albumen height were recorded during 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage (ranging from 6.90 mm to 6.07mm). Moreover, the Haugh unit values also decreased during storage from 81.27 to 74.89 at 4°C. The present results suggest that the albumen height and the Haugh unit are the most important parameters of egg quality, obtained from commercial layers raised in battery cages, affected by a storage period of 4 weeks.

Open access

Jovana Dulić, Mirjana Ljubojević, Ines Prlainović, Goran Barać, Tijana Narandžić and Vladislav Ognjanov

Summary

Ophrys sphegodes Mill. is a wild orchid species which is threatened and protected due to its pollination biology, small seed and habitat destruction. The aim of this study was to establish asymbiotic germination protocol for the purpose of ex situ conservation. Two basal media Knudson C (KC) and Malmgren (MM), supplemented with organic additives (peptone (PE), L-glutamin (A)e, folic acid, casein hydrolysate (CA)) added separately and control media KC--C and MM--C were used in the present research. All the nutrition media contained 2% sucrose, 7% agar and 1% activated carbon, while their pH was adjusted to 5.8 ± 0.02 before autoclaving at 121 ° C for 20 minutes. The seeds were examined under two illumination conditions, 0/24 light/dark (L/D) and 16/8 L/D. The presented results indicate a huge influence of illumination and nutrition media on the seed germination and protocorm formation. The seed germination was overall significantly more successful in dark conditions (0/24 L/D) than with lighting (16/8 L/D). Protocorm, rhizoids and shoot formation were achieved only on the seeds cultured on MM medium, while the KC medium caused only swelling of the embryo. Organic additives had positive influence on the germination rate. According to the obtained results, the best germination rate and seedling development were achieved on MM-PE media, cultured in dark. The presented procedure accelerates the germination period and can provide a large number of plants in a relatively short period of time so it can be used for conservation programs and mass production protocol.

Open access

Vojislava Bursić, Gorica Vuković, Marina Đukić, Aleksandra Petrović, Magdalena Cara, Dušan Marinković and Rada Đurović-Pejčev

Summary

During 2018 a total of 42 sour cherry samples were collected and analysed for pesticide residues by LCMS/MS with the carbofuran–D3 and acetamiprid-D3 as internal standards. The study showed that 42.86% of the analysed samples contained pesticide residues. In percentage terms, it seems to be high, but most of the detections were below the recommended MRL values, which is encouraging. The analysis indicated that three of the analysed sour cherry samples (7.14%) contained pesticide residues above the MRLs (propiconazole, methomyl, dimethoate and prochloraz). In spite of the low concentrations, ten samples contained multiple detections, i.e. 55.56% of the analysed samples contained more than one pesticide residue.

Open access

Saša Krstović, Anka Popović Vranješ, Anka Kasalica, Marija Jevtić and Igor Jajić

Summary

The aim of this study was to investigate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) transfer from naturally contaminated raw milk into cheese and whey, during the production of Livanjski cheese (hard cheese type). Raw milk samples were collected from 4 farms in Serbia. The samples were then tested for AFM1 content and were later used for hard cheese production. Four cheese samples were produced, and the matching whey samples were also collected. The milk samples included two samples containing AFM1 above the EU maximum level (0.077±0.009 and 0.118±0.008 µg/kg) and the other two samples below the maximum level of 0.05 µg/kg (0.021±0.002 and 0.034±0.004 µg/kg). Regarding AFM1 transfer into cheese from the milk samples containing AFM1 above the EU maximum level, the rate was approximately 4-fold (383% and 410%). On the other hand, in the cheese samples made from milk containing AFM1 below the EU maximum level, almost 10-fold levels of AFM1 content in milk were found (transfer rates of 934% and 961%). As for the whey samples, AFM1 levels were below the levels found in the milk samples (transfer rates of 78%, 74%, 68% and 57%). The difference in the transfer rates for the cheese made from the milk samples contaminated at different levels may indicate the possibility that the AFM1 transfer rate from milk into cheese depends on the content of this toxin in milk.

Open access

Petar Stamberov, Chavdar Zhelev, Toni Todorov, Sofiya Ivanova, Tandzhu Mehmedov, Iliyan Manev and Ella Taneva

Abstract

The paper presents the level of lead in the liver, gizzard, breast muscles and humerus of game birds, shot during the hunting season of 2016 - 2017 in Bulgaria. In quail gizzards (n=10) radiographic examination showed ingested pellets. In turtle doves (n=10), lead levels in the liver had higher values of 2,501 ± 1,404 mg/kg, compared to the maximum levels of <2 mg/kg. The content of lead in the humerus of partridges (n=10) showed a very high concentrations of 54,241 ± 36,731 mg/kg compared to the base level of 10<20 mg/kg. The high levels of lead in the tissues of the game birds, induced by lead shot exposure, are a significant risk to predators and scavengers.