Browse

1 - 10 of 478 items :

  • Hygiene and Environmental Medicine x
Clear All
Describing Serbian Hospital Activity Using Australian Refined Diagnosis Related Groups: A Case Study in Vojvodina Province

Abstract

Introduction

AR-DRG system for classification hospital episodes was implemented in Serbia to improve efficiency and transparency in the health system.

Methods

L3H3, IQR, and 10th–95th percentile methods were used to identify outlier episodes in the classification. Classification efficiency and within-group homogeneity were measured by an adjusted reduction in variance (R2) and a coefficient of variation (CV).

Results

There were 246,131 hospital episodes with a total 1,651,913 bed days from 14 hospitals. All episodes were classified into 652 groups of which 441 had CV lower than 100%. “Medical groups” accounted for 51% of groups and for 72% of episodes. Chemotherapy and vaginal delivery were the highest volume groups, with 5% and 4% of total episodes. Major diagnostic category 6 (MDC 6, Diseases of the digestive system) was the highest volume MDC, accounting for 11% of episodes. “Day-cases” and “prolonged hospitalisation” accounted for 21% and 3% of episodes, respectively. The average length of stay varied from 5.6 to 8.2 days. Adjusted R2 was 0.3 for untrimmed data. Trimming by L3H3, IQR, and 10th–95th percentile method improved the value of adjusted R2 to 0.61, 0.49, and 0.51, identifying 24%, 7%, and 7% of total cases as outliers, respectively. Mental diseases (MDC 19) remained the lowest adjusted R2 in untrimmed and trimmed datasets.

Conclusion

A long length of stay and a small percentage of “day-cases” characterized hospital activity in Vojvodina. Trimming methods significantly improved DRG efficiency. Future studies should consider cost data.

Open access
Development of an Algorithm for Determining of Genetic Risk at the Primary Healthcare Level – A New Tool for Primary Prevention: A Study Protocol

Abstract

Introduction

Family history (FH) is an important part of the patients’ medical history during preventive management at model family medicine practices (MFMP). It currently includes a one (or two) generational inquiry, predominately in terms of cardiovascular diseases, arterial hypertension, and diabetes, but not of other diseases with a probable genetic aetiology. Beside family history, no application-based algorithm is available to determine the risk level for specific chronic diseases in Slovenia.

Methods

A web application-based algorithm aimed at determining the risk level for selected monogenic and polygenic diseases will be developed. The data will be collected in MFMP; approximately 40 overall with a sample including healthy preventive examination attendees (approximately 1,000). Demographic data, a three-generational FH, a medical history of acquired and congenital risk factors for the selected diseases, and other important clinical factors will be documented.

Results

The results will be validated by a clinical genetic approach based on family pedigrees and the next-generation genetic sequencing method. After the risk of genetic diseases in the Slovenian population has been determined, clinical pathways for acting according to the assessed risk level will be prepared.

Conclusion

By means of a public health tool providing an assessment of family predisposition, a contribution to the effective identification of people at increased risk of the selected monogenic and polygenic diseases is expected, lessening a significant public health burden.

Open access
Gender Differences in Predictors of Self-Medication with Tranquillizers and Sleeping Pills: Results of the Population-Based Study in Serbia

Abstract

Background

Previous studies among the Serbian population concluded that the trend of self-medication with tranquillizers and sleeping pills requires deeper study. The objective is to identify gender differences in socio-demographic, health, and health service predictors of self-medication with tranquillizers and sleeping pills in a Serbian population of 15 years old and above.

Methods

This was a population-based, cross-sectional study. Data was extracted from the most recently available results of the Serbian National Health Survey of 2013. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine independent self-medication predictors.

Results

The study included 14,623 participants, of which 51.77% were female. While 5.6% of the females reported self-medication with tranquillizers and sleeping pills, only 2.2% of males reported such practice (p<0.001). The presence of chronic disease, stress, and physical pain in the last month before the interview was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of self-medication with observed drugs in both genders. Age was the most significant socio-demographic predictor of self-medication in females, while in males it was unemployment. Women of 55–65 years of age showed a greater risk from self-medication with tranquillizers and sleeping pills in comparison to women of 15–24 years of age (aOR=4.75, 95% CI: 1.83–12.33). Unemployed males showed a greater tendency for such practice in comparison to employed (aOR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.19–2.91).

Conclusion

The findings highlighted predictors of self-medication with tranquillizers and sleeping pills and important differences between genders, which may contribute to the design of gender-sensitive surveillance, identification, and the prevention of such undesirable practices through evidence-based and appropriately tailored public health actions.

Open access
The Perinatal Loss Care Educational Programme and Its Evaluation

Abstract

Introduction

Working with bereaved parents is an immense challenge for professionals in the field of perinatal care and requires a high level of knowledge and skill. This article aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Perinatal Loss Care blended educational programme.

Methods

An evaluative assessment was carried out using a scored questionnaire to gather pre- and post-programme data. Participants were medical and healthcare professionals (n=200) who participated in the programme voluntarily (the Medical Professional/Motivated group and the Others group) or were selected by their employer and for whom attendance was mandatory (the Medical Professional/Non/Motivated group).

Results

Participants’ perception of their own knowledge and understanding of perinatal bereavement care was significantly higher on completion of the educational programme, proving its effectivity. There was a statistically significant effect on overall score in individual groups of respondents, as well as the whole set (p<0.001), with post-intervention scores higher than pre-intervention scores. No statistically significant differences in overall score were detected before participation in the educational programme in individual groups (p=0.204). Participants from the Medical Professional/Non/Motivated group achieved lower post-intervention scores to a significantly greater extent (p<0.05) and more often perceived the educational programme as being “very difficult” (χ2=20.66, df=6, P<0.01) compared to other groups.

Conclusions

The educational programme was assessed as effective. Care of bereaved parents has its specifics and healthcare professionals should possess a basic knowledge of how to provide sensitive care during this time.

Open access
Predicting Equations and Resting Energy Expenditure Changes in Overweight Adults

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of the study is to show the differences between the measured and estimated values of resting energy expenditure and any changes occurring after the 6-month weight loss intervention program.

Methods

We included 33 healthy adults aged 25–49 years with an average body mass index 29.1±2.7 kg/m 2 for female and 29.8±2.8 kg/m2 for male. The measured resting energy expenditure was obtained by indirect calorimeter MedGem® Microlife and estimated resting energy expenditure by the Harris–Benedict equation, the Mifflin–St Jeor equation, the Owen equation, the Wright equation, and by the Tanita body composition analyser. All measurements and calculations were carried out before and after the 6-month intervention. Results were compared using paired t-tests. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

A comparison of the measured resting energy expenditure of female subjects with the estimated resting energy expenditure using the Harris–Benedict equation, the Mifflin–St Jeor equation and the Wright equation showed a statistically significant difference. A comparison of the measured resting energy expenditure of male subjects with the estimated resting energy expenditure using the Harris–Benedict equation and the Wright equation showed a statistically significant difference. There was a significant difference in the measured resting energy expenditure and estimated resting energy expenditure using Tanita.

Conclusions

We concluded that the most comparable equation for our sample was the Owen’s equation. After losing weight, the measured resting energy expenditure has decreased, which must be taken into account in further diet therapy.

Open access
Safety Culture at Primary Healthcare Level: A Cross-Sectional Study among Employees with a Leadership Role

Abstract

Introduction

An effective leadership is critical to the development of a safety culture within an organization. With this study, the authors wanted to assess the self-perceived level of safety culture among the employees with a leadership function in the Ljubljana Community Health Centre.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study in the largest community health centre in Slovenia. We sent an invitation to all employees with a leadership role (N=211). The Slovenian version of the SAQ – Short Form as a measurement of a safety culture was used. The data on demographic characteristics (gender, age, role, work experience, working hours, and location of work) were also collected. An electronic survey was used.

Results

The final sample consisted of 154 (69.7%) participants, out of which 136 (88.3%) were women. The mean age and standard deviation of the sample was 46.2±10.5 years. The average scores for the safety culture domains on a scale from 1 to 5 were 4.1±0.6 for Teamwork Climate, Safety Climate, and Working Conditions and Satisfaction, 3.7±0.5 for Perception of Management, 3.6±0.4 for Communication, and 3.5±0.6 for Stress Recognition.

Conclusion

The safety culture among leaders in primary healthcare organizations in Slovenia is perceived as positive. There is also a strong organizational culture. Certain improvements are needed, especially in the field of communication and stress recognition with regards to safety culture.

Open access
Valuation of EQ-5D-3l Health States in Slovenia: VAS based and TTO based Value Sets

Abstract

Introduction

The two primary objectives of this paper were (a) to develop first logically consistent TTO based EQ-5D-3L value sets for Slovenia and (b) to revisit earlier developed VAS based EQ-5D-3L value sets.

Methods

Between September 2005 and April 2006, face-to-face interviews with 225 individuals in Slovenia were conducted. Protocols from the Measurement and Value of Health study were followed closely. Each respondent valued 15 health states out of a total of 23. Model selection was informed by the criteria monotonicity/logical consistency. Predictive accuracy was assessed in terms of mean square difference between out-of-sample predictions and corresponding observed means, as well as Lin’s Concordance Correlation Coefficient.

Results

Modelling was based on 2,717 VAS and 2,831 TTO values elicited from 225 respondents. A 6-parameter constrained regression model with a supplementary power term was selected for VAS and TTO value sets, as it produces monotonic values, and proved superior in terms of out-of-sample predictive accuracy over the tested alternatives.

Conclusion

This is the first EQ-5D-3L TTO based value set in Slovenia and the second in Central and Eastern Europe (besides Poland). It is also the first monotonic and logically consistent VAS value set in Central and Eastern Europe. Comparisons with Polish and UK TTO values show considerable differences, mostly due to mobility with having a substantially greater weight in Slovenia. The UK value set generally produces lower values and the Polish value set higher values for mild states.

Open access
Acrylic sculpting nails, an occupational hazard for contact dermatitis. Case reports and review of the literature

Abstract

Acrylates are plastic materials formed by the polymerization of monomers, which are recognized as powerful sensitizers that may cause allergic contact dermatitis both in occupational and non-occupational environment. In the occupational setting, the most exposed workers are the dentists, dental technicians, prosthesis technicians, printers, painters, fiberglass workers and nail technicians. We describe four cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in nail technicians caused by acrylic compounds that illustrate numerous clinical manifestations. Clinical manifestations ranged from edema, erythema, scaling and fissuring fingertips to erythematous patches around the chin, mandible and abdomen. Patch testing results revealed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in all patients. Of the four patients, two changed jobs, one stopped exposure because of pregnancy and one patient continued working, showing no improvement, despite undergoing treatment. These cases underline the importance of improvement of preventive measures in the workplace.

Open access
Communication with superiors and colleagues and other occupational stressors. Correlations with work ability, self-efficacy and health in employees from primary and secondary education

Abstract

During periodic occupational medical checkup, in a sample including all employees from two high schools, a secondary school and a kindergarten, we administered through voluntary completion, questionnaires which assessed the employees’ occupational stress in terms of individual characteristics, anxiety, sense of self-efficacy, work ability, emotional exhaustion and health status (using ShortForm 36 questionnaire). A number of 233 questionnaires were returned. Only the occupational stressor represented by communication with superiors correlates significantly negatively with work ability in all four units. Work ability and communication with superiors also have average scores which differ significantly and are concordant in all four units. In the secondary school, work ability has the highest average value and the lowest average value of “communication with superiors” stressor. The same values are decreasing for WAI in order, from high school 2 to high school 1 and kindergarten while the stressor represented by communication with superiors has increasing values in order from high school no 2 to high school no. 1, and kindergarten. These results show that programmes to reduce occupational stress in school units should primarily address the school unit leadership in order to improve their communication with employees.

Open access
Correlations between weather parameters, atmospheric hydrogen sulphide level and vitamin B12 administration to H2S exposed workers

Abstract

Hydrogen sulphide, a highly toxic gas, can be used in crenotherapy to balance all metabolic processes (minerals, fats and proteins). The main aims of this study were to correlate the weather characteristics with the atmospheric H2S level and to evaluate the antidote activity of B12 Vitamin in the case of prolonged exposure to this compound. 46 volunteers, people from the medical staff of an important Romanian thermal water spring spa, with professional exposure at H2S, were enrolled in this study; numerical data about their blood pressure, atmospheric H2S concentration and about the weather conditions were collected every month for one year. The results indicate an improvement in the blood pressure of volunteers treated with Vitamin B12; no significant correlation between the concentration of total urinary sulphur and the concentration of atmospheric H2S level was found.

Open access