The aim of this study is to examine whether sport involvement i.e. identification with the domain of sports affect satisfaction with body image in men and women. 158 respondents from a tertiary educational institution provided data on their satisfaction with their body image, level of sport involvement, and level of physical activity. Independent t-tests were conducted to compare differences between and within genders. Female respondents (n=40) who were high in sport involvement reported a significantly lower level of dissatisfaction with their body image (M=.55, SD=.78) when compared to female respondents (n=44) who were low in sport involvement (M=.84, SD=.83; t=1.65, p<.05). There was no significant difference amongst male respondents. There was also no significant difference in satisfaction with body image across groups with varying levels of physical activity. This suggests that being involved in sport can affect body image satisfaction amongst females.
Particulate matter, one of the most recent social problems in Korea, not only poses a threat to people’s health, but is also emerging as a constraint to discourage outdoor leisure activities. Golf, a leisure sport played outdoors for hours, is not free from such a threat, and now is time to analyze golfers’ recognition of particulate matter. To examine whether particulate matter, among other constraints for golfers, had a significant effect as well as how golfers recognized particulate matter, we used 324 collected questionnaires in this study. After exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis through SPSS 23.0, we divided questionnaire participants into recognition and non-recognition groups based on whether they checked and recognized atmospheric conditions, including particulate matter, before playing golf, and used multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to compare and analyze leisure constraints. Respondents in the recognition group who recognized particulate matter in advance experienced participation constraints in weather and health factors, while those in the non-recognition group experienced participation constraints in skill and confidence factors. In other words, respondents participated in outdoor leisure activities even though they recognized the level of hazardous particulate matter in the air beforehand, and particulate matter worked as a participation constraint for them; this finding confirmed that it will be necessary in the future to take preventative action more actively against the danger of particulate matter.
We propose to conduct an analysis, by studying the influences exercised by certain variables (the biological gender, the ranking and the sociomotor space) on the level of cohesion among the sports teams in the municipality of Iaşi, Romania, evolving in the first leagues. A questionnaire was conducted on a number of 158 athletes (55 females, 103 males) who practice basketball, soccer, handball, rugby, volleyball. The responders answered the questionnaire regarding the group environment (GEQ). Factor analysis groups the items on two factors at the level of the Romanian subjects. The homogeneity of the instrument was evaluated for the entire scale, as well as independently for each of the two factors. The gender variable does not influence the level of social cohesion and the one of task cohesion among the sports teams taken into account. The ranking does not influence task cohesion among the teams studied. Both the ranking and the level of sociomotor space, as independent variables, determine significant differences regarding the level of social cohesion among the teams studied. The sociomotor space variable determines at the level of the teams sportive studied significant differences also regarding task cohesion.
This study’s purpose was to investigate any possible relationship between the goal perspectives (task and ego orientation) and volitional competences (persistence, expedience, and purposefulness) in physical activities settings. Participants were 134 people with a physical disability (103 men and 31 women) with age ranging from 14 to 67 years. All participants participated in physical activities. Participants filled out the Measure Athletes’ Volition – Short (MAV-S), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sports Questionnaire (TEOSQ). Results revealed that volitional competencies are predictors goal perspectives in physical activity settings. In addition, the findings showed that the expedience is a stronger predictor to task orientation, while persistence competence is to ego orientation. In conclusion, the present study is considered to offer new knowledge on the achievement goal orientation people with physical disabilities in physical activity contexts. The first one is that volitional competencies (expedience and purposefulness) are significantly positive predictors of task orientation. The second conclusion is that persistence competence is significantly positive predictor, while purposefulness competence is negative predictor of ego orientation.
There are many reasons why individuals are motivated to participate in sports. For athletes to participate in and keep up exercise, investigating the participation motivation of athletes is necessary. The aim of this study was to compare sport participation motivation of athletes in team and individual disciplines. The sample consisted of 265 athletes including four teams from football, volleyball, basketball, and handball and two individual disciplines of kung fu and taekwondo which were randomly selected. The 30-item sports participation motivation questionnaire (PMQ) was used. Analysis of data was conducted by the use of independent-samples t-test. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the sports participation motivation of athletes in a team and individual sports as well as between male and female athletes. But, among the components of the sports participation motivation, only the aspect of achievement in a team and individual sports and the aspect of finding friendship in male and female athletes existed, no other significant difference was observed. The results of this study show that sports discipline and the athlete’s gender is effective in motivating athletes’ continuation and commitment to a physical activity.
Evangelos Bebetsos, Emmanuel Aggelakis, George Bebetsos and Dimitrios Gargalianos
The objective of the current study was the investigation of anxiety and satisfaction levels among Elite Greek Youth athletes of Canoe-Kayak Sprint. Additionally, whether elements such as gender, age, athletic experience, and weekly practice-time, differentiated the sample. 122 athletes, (61 males and 61 females) between the ages of 15-17 yrs. old, who competed in the Hellenic Federation’s Canoe-Kayak Sprint National Championships. Study participants were invited to complete two questionnaires: a) the Greek version of “CSAI-2” (Stavrou, Zervas, Kakkos, & Psichoundaki, 1998), and b) the Greek version of the “Athlete Satisfaction” scale (Bebetsos & Theodorakis, 2003). Results of the conducted study revealed that the sample differentiated: a) on somatic, and cognitive anxiety, according to their athletic experience, and b) on somatic, and cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, leadership, and personal outcome, according to their weekly practice-time. Finally, no sex differences were found in any questionnaire variable. In conclusion, the survey results highlighted the importance of the psychological factors tested on Canoe-Kayak Sprint athletes’ performance. Knowing and understanding athletes’ psychological state, can help them out (the athletes) in identifying aspects such as stress and satisfaction that directly affect their racing performance.
Elżbieta Biernat, Łukasz Skrok, Dawid Majcherek and Hanna Nałęcz
Hitherto empirical research provides insight on particular dimensions or aspects thereof, but analyses that include diverse determinants of the physical activity are scarcer. The aim of the research was to examine the profile of adults who engage in sport activity, using a multi-layer, socio-ecological approach. Combined database: The Social Diagnosis 2015, The Statistics Poland 2014, and the Orliki 2012 was applied. The resulting sample consists of 8,361 adult respondents aged 25–70 years. Sport activity and sport clubs’ membership were measured as dependent variables. According to the Bronfenbrenner’s layered model number of outcome variables were described. While being consistent with fundamental facts known from the literature (e.g. significance of age, education, family, social networks and cultural aspects, the results point to a heterogeneity in determining sport activity. Firstly, women and men differ qualitatively – the set of characteristics important for sport activity is different. For example, while minor health issues seem to instigate activity of women, for men they are rather negatively related. Secondly, different factors are relevant for initiating the activity than for sustaining it. Furthermore, sport activity is rather positively related to other activities related to social life or to the life-long learning. This suggests that a substitution effect, in terms of time, is less important than the general tendency to be engaged in different aspects of life. Lastly, active membership of sports clubs is not only rare, but also qualitatively differs from sports activity in terms of socio-ecological profile of the participants. The obtained results emphasize the need to create and implement nuanced and varied policies to support increase in physical activity in modern societies. Traditional, ‘hard’ measures like providing physical (facilities) or organisational (sports clubs) infrastructure seem to have limited effectiveness.
The aims of this study were to adapt the Hungarian version of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2 and test an expanded Sport Commitment Model (SCM) with psychological variables.
Participants were 526 adolescent athletes (aged 14-18 years, 52.3% males). Applied scales were the following: Hungarian version of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2, Consideration of the Future Consequences Scale and Health Attitudes Scale. Exploratory, confirmatory, and path analysis were used for statistical analysis.
Our result showed adequate construct validity of the Hungarian version of Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2. We found several positive predictors of Enthusiastic Commitment and three positive predictors of Constrained Commitment. We found that Health Attitudes had positive relationship with Constrained Commitment and it was associated with future goals and plans; whereas Enthusiastic Commitment had a positive relationship, and Constrained Commitment had a negative relationship with Future Orientation.
Information about sport commitment provided by Sport Commitment Questionnaire may be useful as a tool to prevent dropout among young athletes.
Joey Gawrysiak, Rick Burton, Seth Jenny and Dylan Williams
While discussion and media coverage of esports (i.e., organized competitive video gaming) has dramatically increased since 2016, the use of esports by established consumer brands has not been emphasized in the sport marketing and sponsorship literature. Though appearing in limited sport management research, esports is a non-traditional sport form that generated just under $1.2 billion in revenue as an industry in 2019. However, many non-endemic traditional consumer brands have resisted capitalizing on esports brand-building opportunities. This paper provides a literature review of the past and current esports and sport marketing literature, resulting in the creation of a figure depicting the esports endemic and non-endemic company evolution of esports brand utilization. The evolution of the competitive video game market details how endemic companies are more apt to establish themselves in the esports space before non-endemic companies because of the way that the industry moves and has acceptance by gamers and non-gamers. Marketers and brand managers that have historically employed traditional sports may glean ideas on how to best enhance and extend their brand through the burgeoning esports industry. Moreover, ideas regarding when companies should enter the esports ecosystem is provided.
The aim of this study was to analyse the goal scoring patterns during the 2018 FIFA World Cup. All goals scored during the tournament were analysed using the InStat video analysis system. The results showed that 169 goals (open play: 60.9%; set play: 39.1%) were scored during the competition. While 85 goals (82.5%) were scored from elaborate attacks, 18 goals (17.5%) came from counter attacks. A chi-square test indicated that there was a significant difference in the type of possession (χ2 (1, n = 103) = 43.58, p = 0.00). The highest number of goals was yielded from the final third (35%) as compared to the first (33%) and middle (32%) thirds. The results also indicated that most goals accounted from short passes (69.9%), while 13.6% of goals came from long passes and 16.5% from mixed passes (χ2 (2, n = 103) = 62.12, p = 0.00). Soccer coaches should incorporate set pieces in their training sessions in view to improve goal-scoring opportunities.