The aims of this study were to adapt the Hungarian version of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2 and test an expanded Sport Commitment Model (SCM) with psychological variables.
Participants were 526 adolescent athletes (aged 14-18 years, 52.3% males). Applied scales were the following: Hungarian version of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2, Consideration of the Future Consequences Scale and Health Attitudes Scale. Exploratory, confirmatory, and path analysis were used for statistical analysis.
Our result showed adequate construct validity of the Hungarian version of Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2. We found several positive predictors of Enthusiastic Commitment and three positive predictors of Constrained Commitment. We found that Health Attitudes had positive relationship with Constrained Commitment and it was associated with future goals and plans; whereas Enthusiastic Commitment had a positive relationship, and Constrained Commitment had a negative relationship with Future Orientation.
Information about sport commitment provided by Sport Commitment Questionnaire may be useful as a tool to prevent dropout among young athletes.
Joey Gawrysiak, Rick Burton, Seth Jenny and Dylan Williams
While discussion and media coverage of esports (i.e., organized competitive video gaming) has dramatically increased since 2016, the use of esports by established consumer brands has not been emphasized in the sport marketing and sponsorship literature. Though appearing in limited sport management research, esports is a non-traditional sport form that generated just under $1.2 billion in revenue as an industry in 2019. However, many non-endemic traditional consumer brands have resisted capitalizing on esports brand-building opportunities. This paper provides a literature review of the past and current esports and sport marketing literature, resulting in the creation of a figure depicting the esports endemic and non-endemic company evolution of esports brand utilization. The evolution of the competitive video game market details how endemic companies are more apt to establish themselves in the esports space before non-endemic companies because of the way that the industry moves and has acceptance by gamers and non-gamers. Marketers and brand managers that have historically employed traditional sports may glean ideas on how to best enhance and extend their brand through the burgeoning esports industry. Moreover, ideas regarding when companies should enter the esports ecosystem is provided.
The aim of this study was to analyse the goal scoring patterns during the 2018 FIFA World Cup. All goals scored during the tournament were analysed using the InStat video analysis system. The results showed that 169 goals (open play: 60.9%; set play: 39.1%) were scored during the competition. While 85 goals (82.5%) were scored from elaborate attacks, 18 goals (17.5%) came from counter attacks. A chi-square test indicated that there was a significant difference in the type of possession (χ2 (1, n = 103) = 43.58, p = 0.00). The highest number of goals was yielded from the final third (35%) as compared to the first (33%) and middle (32%) thirds. The results also indicated that most goals accounted from short passes (69.9%), while 13.6% of goals came from long passes and 16.5% from mixed passes (χ2 (2, n = 103) = 62.12, p = 0.00). Soccer coaches should incorporate set pieces in their training sessions in view to improve goal-scoring opportunities.
Arturo Quílez Maimón, Javier Courel-Ibáñez and Francisco Javier Rojas Ruíz
The aim of this study was to review and organise current literature about the basketball pass and find the main factors that influence its learning skills and performance. Thirty-seven studies were included after the screening process. The documents were classified into main research topics. This review identified the following conclusions: (i) the assessment of passing performance should be made under uncertain and variable conditions to obtain information on players’ responses to competitive scenarios, (ii) it is advisable to incorporate new and random activities to facilitate the transference of learning to the competition, (iii) it is recommended to include overwhelming factors during the practice to minimise the effect of pressure and choking, (iv) optimal physical conditioning is essential to maintain passing performance during a basketball game, (v) small sided games and changing environments stand as the best training situations to improve passing skills. Furthermore, limited information is available about biomechanical aspects and physical conditioning training programs to improve passing skills in basketball. Likewise, there is sparse data on passing skills development in children.
Knowledge of players’ anthropometric profiles may contribute to a better understanding of the differences between their performance levels. For example, vertical jump height, which is a major indicator of a volleyball player’s performance, is influenced by favorable anthropometric variables. This study’s aim was to describe anthropometric profiles of elite female volleyball players competing in the 1st and 2nd divisions in Portugal and to link these profiles with performance skills such as jump height obtained during blocking and spiking actions. Fifty-nine volleyball players were analyzed according to their competitive level, forming three independent groups: GA (n = 20, A1 division, ranked first), GB (n = 21, A1 division, ranked last) and GC (n = 18, A2 division). Anthropometric data collected included body mass and height, arm span, seven skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdominal, thigh and calf), four body perimeters (relaxed brachial, contracted brachial, thigh and calf), and two body diameters (humeral and femoral). Performance data included the height obtained during block and spike actions. Significant differences were found between groups (GA/GB from A1 and GC from A2). Players in the GA had the highest body mass (68.05 ± 6.62 kg, p < 0.05), body height (176.35 ± 6.21 cm, p < 0.05), arm span (177.59 ± 6.09 cm, p < 0.05), lean mass (53.51 ± 4.94 kg, p < 0.05) and vertical jump heights (block: 0.36 ± 0.06 m and spike: 0.43 ± 0.05 m, p < 0.05). As expected, the fat mass percentage of GA players was the lowest (21.30 ± 2.61%). The results suggest that anthropometric profiles of volleyball players may vary according to the competitive level. The higher body mass, body height, arm span, and lean mass presented by GA players in comparison with GC players suggest these variables are important for top-level performance, since these athletes also exhibited higher jump heights. Variables such as height and arm span have a considerable genetic influence and could be important for early talent identification in volleyball. Other variables such as body mass, lean mass and vertical jump performance are more complex, since they also reflect the effects of environmental and training conditions.
Fernando Garbeloto dos Santos, Matheus Maia Pacheco, Luciano Basso, Flavio Henrique Bastos and Go Tani
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a checklist to assess proficient performance of basketball straight speed dribbling skill. The sample was composed of 100 children and adolescents between 7 and 15 years of age with and without structured practice in basketball. The validation process tested the validity domain, decision, tendencies, reliability, responsiveness, and objectivity. The results show that the checklist contains criteria that represent the speed dribbling skill and is sensible to distinguish between different proficiency levels of performance. The results also expressed high reliability and objectivity (intra and inter-rater). In light of the findings, we concluded that the checklist can be used to reliably analyze performance and evaluate the process of learning and development of the straight speed dribbling skill.
The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure extreme sports participants’ levels of compulsive exercising. There are a number of compulsive exercising scales; however, none of them is targeted for extreme sports participants, whose emotional responses differ from those of non-extreme sports participants. Five hundred extreme sports participants were involved in this study, which included literature analysis, expert review, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Firstly, 95 items were selected from previous studies related to extreme sports and compulsive exercising. Secondly, nine experts scrutinized the content validity of the 95 items, and 82 items were found to be valid. Thirdly, the 82-item survey was initially administered to 253 participants for the purposes of exploratory factor analysis. Lastly, the 20-item survey that came out as a result of the 82 items being put through the exploratory factor analysis was distributed to the other 247 participants in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the final results, 16 items regarding the four factors of the “withdrawal symptom”, “attachment”, “struggle”, and “obsession” were confirmed. The factors used to measure extreme sports participants’ compulsiveness in this study reflect somewhat different dimensions from those developed in previous studies for non-extreme sports participants or exercisers. Only factors in the affective and behavioral dimensions are included in the present study’s scale, while factors in the cognitive or the combined cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions were investigated in previous studies. This explains the need for the present study.
Gabriele Mascherini, Cristian Petri, Elena Ermini, Angelo Pizzi, Antonio Ventura and Giorgio Galanti
Soccer referees are a specific group of the athletes’ population whose careers peak from 30 to 45 years old. An athlete's performance is not only determined by physical training but also by a lifestyle, e.g. eating habits. The purpose of this study was to verify current eating habits and resulting body composition of a group of elite international soccer referees. At an international FIFA seminar 60 elite international soccer referees (aged 39.2 ± 4.2 years) were enrolled. A body composition assessment was performed with skinfold thickness and bio impedance analysis, while eating habits were evaluated with a multi-pass 24-hour dietary recall. The body composition showed a normal weight condition with a fat content of 11.4 ± 2.5%. Macronutrients showed a low level of carbohydrates (43.6 ± 5.4%) and a high level of fat (40.0 ± 4.5%). Micronutrients showed a low level of calcium, potassium, zinc, magnesium, iodine, vitamin B12 and vitamin B9. Even though their body composition was within the normal range, the current eating habits of elite international soccer referees did not appear to follow the nutrition guidelines. Therefore, it would be advisable to provide knowledge on nutrition for this particular category of sports subjects, an individualized nutritional plan would be advisable, in order to achieve and maintain better performance and appropriate body composition for their role.
Felipe Moniz, Alcides Scaglia, Hugo Sarmento, Tomás García-Calvo and Israel Teoldo
The aim of this study was to verify the effect of an inside floater on soccer players’ tactical behaviour in small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs). The sample comprised 54 Brazilian top-level academy players. The instrument used to assess players’ tactical behaviour was the System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT). Tactical behaviour was analysed through the number of tactical actions and the percentage of correct actions regarding the core tactical principles of soccer. Repeated measures test was used to compare tactical behaviour between games (SSCGs) with and without an inside floater. Pearson’s r was used to verify the effect size of the inside floater on tactical behaviour. As for tactical actions, SSCGs with an inside floater displayed significantly lower means for the tactical principles of penetration (2.76 ± 1.63; p < .001), delay (6.11 ± 2.68; p < .018), defensive coverage (1.64 ± 1.14; p < .001) and significantly higher means for the tactical principle of defensive unity (14.98 ± 4.57; p < .032). With respect to the percentage of correct actions, SSCGs with an inside floater displayed significantly lower means for all tactical principles, except for offensive coverage (90.5 ± 18.48; p < 1.000). It was concluded that the inside floater allowed players to modify their behaviour in such a way that they adapted to the constraints imposed by the presence of an inside floater. Furthermore, the inside floater provided more difficulty for players, and thus may be considered an important task constraint to be added in SSCGs.
Adam Maszczyk, Paweł Dobrakowski, Magdalena Nitychoruk, Marcin Żak, Magdalena Kowalczyk and Michal Toborek
This study aimed to analyse the effect of neurofeedback (NFB) training based on beta-wave amplification and theta-wave inhibition on the visual processing efficiency of judo athletes. The study examined 12 male athletes from the national team of the Polish Judo Association. Participants were divided into the experimental (EG, n = 6) and the control group (CG, n = 6). The NFB training protocol was performed and recorded using a Deymed Truscan system with 24 active channels. The effect of NFB training was examined by computer-based simple and complex reaction tests and selected tests of the Vienna Test System (VST). One – way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between the CG and the EG in theta and beta values after the first and the second cycle of training. There were statistically significant differences between the CG and the EG in the results of reaction speed tests after individual cycles of training. The highest reduction in simple reaction time was obtained after the second training cycle, when training was performed every second day and lasted four minutes.