From Philip Roth’s characater Merry Levov in American Pastoral to real-life figures such as the perpetrators of the Columbine massacre, the young domestic terrorist has become the archetype of a dramatic and unpredictable social and political climate. This paper intends to explore the real and fictional avatars of this contemporary anti-hero, its dynamics and specific place in contemporary imagination.
This article examines the protagonist of The Tenant of Wildfell Hall (Helen Huntingdon/Graham) as an anomaly in the novelistic tradition. Helen Huntingdon is a character who decides for herself, without heeding the advice of her aunt and uncle (exercising “a will of her own”, “I take the liberty of judging for myself”). Helen Graham, in this manner, challenges society, the Victorian novel, and also the sentimental novel that preceded it. She suffers domestic violence at the hands of her husband and, in an extraordinary act of rebellion, courage and determination, abandons him, taking her son away with her. The author’s depiction of Helen’s spouse, the alcoholic and abusive Arthur Huntingdon, also constitutes a divergence from the status quo of the era, as affairs of this kind were not normally portrayed in novels about the affluent Victorian society.
The acquisition of lexical competence is a complex process, because for learners, it is not enough to distinguish the form and meaning of a lexical element in order to know how to integrate it correctly into the language context. The skill also involves the understanding of the properties of lexical and grammatical combinatorics. The present analysis of the written production of Lithuanian learners of French as a Second Language (FSL) is based on an annotated corpus and focuses on apposition. The term refers to a noun to which it provides additional information on its quality or nature. Choosing apposition for the study is prompted its particular use for elucidation in French then makes it possible to compare its use by FSL learners of and native speakers. The use of apposition in L1 of the analysed level is not very frequent, which poses another question, namely, how Lithuanian learners convey information without apposition. We task ourselves with noting, the different uses of apposition in FSL learners’ writing and analysing their particularities and correspondences in native speakers’ use. Apposition, as NP (noun phrase) constituent, will be analysed syntactically, taking into account correct, erroneous or uncertain constructs. The learners’ writings serve to orient the didactic reflections towards the general use of apposition in the learners’ corpora and a better represent typical interlanguage constructions.
Adults learning a minoritized language are potential new speakers, that is “adults who acquire a socially and communicatively consequential level of competence and practice in a minority language” (Jaffe, 2015; see also O’Rourke, Pujolar, & Ramallo, 2015). New speakers’ research has become quite common recently, marking a shift from traditional notions of speakerness in minority contexts, built around the Fishmanian discourse of reversing language shift (see Kubota, 2009). The new speaker—actually neo-speaker—is one of the seven categories put forward by Grinevald and Bert (2011), who considered them central to language revitalization. Answering the call for more data on new speakers of minoritized languages in O’Rourke, Pujolar, & Ramallo, 2015, this research aims to start the debate on the new speakers of Frisian (see Belmar, 2018; Belmar, Eikens, Jong, Miedema, & Pinho, 2018; and Belmar, Boven, & Pinho, 2019) by means of a questionnaire filled in by adults learning the language in the evening courses offered by Afûk. This article presents an analysis of their backgrounds, their attitudes towards the language, and their language use.
This article will focus primarily on the ending of The Awakening: A Solitary Soul, probably the most discussed and debated part of Kate Chopin’s novel. The ending can be best understood if the novel is read as an exercise in late Transcendentalist philosophy, with Gothic undertones, plus realist, social commentary and modernist concerns. Walt Whitman’s hedonism meets Guy de Maupassant’s melancholy in a novel that speaks about multiple awakenings (hedonistic, erotic, artistic) but also about several deaths, all necessary for the creation of a new female consciousness.
Death and the mass-media represent two recurring and connected presences throughout Don DeLillo’s fiction. While his canonical novel White Noise is themed around the paradoxical link between the pathological fear of dying and consumerism, his latest novel Zero K is about the deferral of death through cryonics. Using the analytical tools of critical theory, the current paper aims to analyse how the portrayal of death appears in the media saturated and consumer-driven environment in which DeLillo’s characters evolve, and how technology contributes both to fuelling the obsession with dying and to feeding the illusion of immortality.
The purpose of this study was to find the main factors that guide language policies and discover correlations between top-down and bottom-up ideologies in the context of Hungary and Kyrgyzstan. To accomplish this, the study created a database of relevant official documents, photos of linguistic landscapes and qualitative data. The study analyzed the documented top-down decisions from historical perspectives, and then compared them with the data collected from interviews and surveys, and from the collection of photos. The participants included both high-ranking political figures, professors, students and random citizens. Results showed that the official policies often do not comprehensively match with the people’s beliefs, attitudes and desires. Findings also imply that using either document analysis, or the method of linguistic landscape, or qualitative methods alone, might not sufficiently validate the results in the absence of each other, since errors may top up from various discrepancies between top-down and bottom-up arrangements, as well as from overt and covert ideologies.
Ambiguity has played a central role in the formation of modern grammatical theory. The article revisits the topic of structural ambiguity in particular, by looking closely at the sentences ‘The shooting of the hunters is terrible’ and ‘Flying planes can be dangerous’, both taken from Chomsky’s works. The question posed is whether the data provided by corpora verify their ambiguity.
The paper aims to present a critical review of language policy development in Algeria since its independence (1962) to present time. It takes the policy of Arabization, an important turning point in Algerian history that was troubled with serious problems, as an example of language planning in the country. Data was gathered from policy documents, laws, and newspaper articles. It was then coded into themes before it was analysed employing a documentary research method. To provide a methodical discussion, the first part of the paper explores language policy and planning in Algeria. The second part discusses the impact of Arabization on the country’s current state of policy development in light of the debates over the national educational reforms of 2003. The third part highlights the quandary that language planners face during the processes of language planning and policy making. Lastly, the paper concludes with an evaluation of the process of language policy development in the country. The paper argues that in order to foster sustainable multilingualism and achieve effective educational reforms, a keener recognition of Algerian linguistic diversity by the government is imperative.